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Western Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education (SARE) Farm Internship Curriculum and Handbook   Tom and Maud Powell and Michael Moss, Sustainable Farmers, Jackson County, OR. Technical advisor: Tim Franklin, Jacksonville, OR. Curriculum advisor: Peter O’Connell, Jacksonville, OR. Web advisor: National Center for Appropriate Technology, Butte, MT. Published 2007 Updated 2010 &copy NCAT   Biodynamics Learning Objectives The learner will: Understand the basics of biodynamics, including the history, the approach, and the preparations   Historical Overview – Justus Von Liebig (1803-73) “father of Ag. Chemistry” – NPK WWI brought NO3 (saltpeter) fertilizer made from bomb making surplus Tanks became tractors Poison nerve gas became insecticides, and herbicides Sir Albert Howard (1873-1947) – soil=plant health , Indore compost process Lady Eve Balfour (1898-1990), the Living Soil (1943), founded the Soil Ass’n (UK) and Mother Earth Magazine   Rudolf Steiner – (1861-1925) from rural Austria, studied in Vienna Edited Johann Wolfgang von Goethe scientific writings – a bridge between nature and spirit modern science only understands what is dead in nature, overlooks the spiritual aspect of reality Introduced Anthroposophy and spiritual science Led initiatives in education, health, care of mentally handicapped, architecture, theology, agriculture, economics and other fields June 1924 held the Agriculture lectures in Koberwitz (then E. Germany, now Poland) to a group of farmers familiar with Anthroposophy Problems that these farmers had begun to notice included: new pests (nematodes in sugar beets), decline in vigor in alfalfa (replant every 5 years, instead of 30 yrs.), decline in seed vigor in wheat, rye, oats, and increase in hoof and mouth disease in cattle. From this lecture rose the “experimental circle” of farmers to implement these ideas and evaluate. By 1928 – 66 BD farms, and 148 members in Demeter WWII – Anthroposophy and BD banned by Nazis Now – BD is widespread in Europe, Australia, NZ, India and to a lesser extent in US and Canada   The Biodynamic Approach A holistic background necessary to understand the complexity of nature Becoming a student of nature: Mind –rational/philosophical, spirit-emotional, Tactile- experience of plants, animal, minerals, weather Understanding the gesture of nature – “Farm as an Organism” Plant and animal health is tied to the health of the land and soil Reading the book of nature – pests & disease result of imbalance in the soil BD aims to enhance the biological process through stimulating microbiological activity in soil and compost Organic=common sense approach -> “nature knows best” (beneficial insects, compost, garlic and pepper sprays) BD Approach includes a much wider scope -> sun, moon, planets, subterranean features, looking deeper into the spirit of nature Aiding nature where she is weak after centuries of abuse and destructive processes Not letting things run their natural course (we harvest lettuce before it goes to seed, we interrupt many natural processes, e.g. Field to forest succession) Service to Earth and its creatures, diverse plantings, hedgerows, bird & bat houses, bee pastures, closed loop systems, using natural rather than technological solutions (permaculture) Fighting bugs and disease are not aims, rather support the good and health and balance will result Low productivity, insect pests and disease are not problems, they are symptoms. The problem is the solution   Biodynamic Preparations Field Sprays: 500 – Horn Manure – supports soil humification, microbial innoculant / catalyst 501 – Horn Silica – organizes photosynthesis – works with light elementals Compost Preparations 502 – Yarrow – Sulfur (S) and potassium (K) 503 – Chamomille – Calicium (Ca), Sulfur (S), Nitrogen (N) 504 – Nettles – S, K, Ca, Iron (Fe) – plant nutrition and soil health 505 – Oak bark – Ca – combats plant diseases through strengthening cell wall through Calcium forces 506 – Dandelion – K & Silica (Si) – Silica attracts cosmic forces to the soil 507 – Valerian – Phosphorus (P) – warmth process and attracts earthworms 508- Horsetail – Silica ( Si) – fights fungal conditions, good in Greenhouse Barrel compost – method to apply the benefits of the compost preparations to pastures and areas which don’t regularly receive compost Catalysts, Inoculants and homeopathy Penicillin, aspirin – not necessary to understand the entire process through which the biodynamic preparations work in order to use them   Cosmic Rhythms Humans 85% water, celery 98%, milk is 70% Lunar rhythms; apogee vs. perigee, ascending, & descending phases, eclipses Perigee brings forces that result in poor germination, inhibited growth, fungus, disease, pests (dull, heavy rainy weather) Apogee – clear and bright weather – generally not good planting time other than potatoes   «« Back to Intern Curriculum   Back to top

The market for mushrooms continues to grow due to interest in their culinary, nutritional, and health benefits. They also show potential for use in waste management. However, as fungi, mushrooms have life cycles very different from those of green plants. The choice of species to raise depends both on the growth media available and on market considerations. Oyster mushrooms, which grow on many substrates, are easiest for a beginner. Shiitake mushrooms already have earned considerable consumer demand. Only two mycorrhizal mushrooms, morels and truffles, have been commercially cultivated. Mushroom cultivation offers benefits to market gardens when it is integrated into the existing production system. A careful analysis of potential markets must be the first step in deciding whether to raise mushrooms to sell. Many information resources are available for further research.

You can find additional information on a wide variety of sustainable agriculture topics in ATTRA publications and resource lists, as well as from agencies, universities and organizations. Links to some of the many available information sources are listed below. Videos NCAT Publications SARE Publications USDA Sustainable Agriculture Programs Sustainable Agriculture Working Groups University and Extension Sustainable Agriculture Programs Non-profit Organizations State Sustainable or Organic Agriculture Websites Regional Centers for Rural Development Agricultural Directories and Virtual Libraries Links to Other Education Information Links to Sustainable Agriculture Educational Programs   ⇒ Videos ⇒ SARE Publications The Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) program is a U.S. Department of Agriculture-funded initiative that sponsors competitive grants for sustainable agriculture research and educationin a regional process nationwide. SARE is dedicated to the exchange of scientific and practical information on sustainable agriculture systems using a variety of printed and electronic communications tools. SARE’s Learning Center is a treasure trove of sustainable agriculture information—searchable by type of product and topic. Many publications are free online. Titles include: Building Soils for Better Crops; The Small Dairy Resource Book; Steel in the Field: A Farmer’s Guide to Weed Management Tools; and Managing Cover Crops Profitably. Put Your Ideas to the Test: How to Conduct Research on Your Farm or Ranch Outlines how to conduct research at the farm level, offering practical tips for both crop and livestock producers. Includes real-life examples and a comprehensive list of further resources. Co-written by a team of research scientists. Marketing Strategies for Farmers & Ranchers Offers snapshots of the many alternatives available for marketing your farm products, including farmers’ markets, pick-your-own operations, farm stands, entertainment farming, Community Supported Agriculture (CSA); cooperatives, sales to restaurants, and more. A Whole Farm Approach to Managing Pests This 20-page bulletin helps producers design farm-wide approaches to control pests. It lays out basic ecological principles for managing pests and suggests how to apply them to real farm situations — along with cutting-edge research examples and anecdotes from farmers using such strategies in their fields. Meeting the Diverse Needs of Limited-Resource Producers: An Educator’s Guide This 16-page bulletin from SARE is intended to be a resource for agricultural educators, heads of community development and agricultural organizations, government agency staff, and others who want to better connect with and improve the lives of farmers and ranchers who remain hard to reach. The free bulletin features nine success stories from around the country as a jumping off point for adapting innovative programs to varied areas. It also provides “how-to” ideas for educators, socio-economic characteristics/barriers to working with varied audiences, proven teaching methods and successful connection strategies. ⇒ Links to USDA Sustainable Agriculture Programs   Alternative Farming Systems Information Center, National Agricultural Library Know Your Farmer Know Your Food Compass North Central Region SARE Northeast Region SARE Southern Region SARE Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE) Program Western Region SARE ⇒ Sustainable Agriculture Working Groups   Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Working Group (NESAWG) Southern Sustainable Agriculture Working Group (SSAWG) ⇒ Links to University and Extension Sustainable Agriculture Programs   Agricultural Marketing Resource Center (AgMRC) Iowa State University Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment University of Massachusetts Amherst Center for Agroecology & Sustainable Food Systems University of California at Santa Cruz Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems University of Wisconsin Center for Profitable Agriculture University of Tennessee Center for Regional Food Systems Michigan State University Center for Sustaining Agriculture & Natural Resources Washington State University Colorado Building Farmers Colorado State University Extension Community Food Systems and Sustainable Agriculture Program University of Missouri Cornell Small Farms Program Growing Small Farms North Carolina State University Illinois Small Farms, University of Illinois Extension Kansas Center for Sustainable Agriculture & Alternative Crops Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture Research, publications, and links on energy and agriculture from Iowa State University. Michigan State University Organic Farm Exchange Minnesota Institute for Sustainable Agriculture Missouri Beginning Farmers Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center Ohio State University Oregon Small Farms Oregon State University Organic and Sustainable Crop Production University of Tennessee Small Farm Program University of California – Davis Small Farms, Alternative Enterprises University of Florida Sustainable Agriculture at CAES University of Georgia The Center for Agroforestry University of Missouri UC Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program University of California USDA National Agroforestry Center UVM Center for Sustainable Agriculture University of Vermont West Virginia Small Farm Center WVU Extension Service Women’s Agricultural Network ⇒ Links to Non-profit Organizations   National Agroecology in Action American Farmland Trust Center for Rural Affairs Community Food and Justice Coalition Conservation Technology Information Center Promotes and disseminates comprehensive data, research and materials related to conservation agriculture. Ecological Farming Association Farm Aid Farm Commons Farmers should be empowered to take action on the legal situations that affect their operations. Farm Commons provides educational resources to help farmers identify issues, break them down into manageable steps, and give them the confidence to move forward. Farm Hack Farmers’ Legal Action Group FoodCorps Greenhorns Holistic Management International HMI is a goal-oriented decision-making system for ecological management of resources, people, and capital. Institute for Agriculture & Trade Policy National Center for Appropriate Technology National Farm to School Network National Sustainable Agriculture Coalition National Young Farmers Coalition Organic Crop Improvement Association (OCIA) International Organic Farming Research Foundation Homepage for OFRF (Organic Farming Research Foundation) and its highly visible SCOAR (Scientific Congress for Organic Agriculture Research) Project. Site features the results of OFRF organic farming surveys, a study of land-grant university support for organic research, information on biotechnology, and lots more. Organic Fruit Growers Association Organic Seed Alliance Organic Trade Association Homepage for the Organic Trade Association (OTA). OTA is the premier organization representing the US organic industry. The site has a large searchable database of organic businesses, including importers, exporters, buyers, suppliers, growers, and others. Rodale Institute / New Farm Rural Advancement Foundation International USA The Land Institute The Livestock Conservancy Wild Farm Alliance Women, Food and Agriculture Network State or Regional Alabama Sustainable Agriculture Network Appalachian Sustainable Agriculture Project Beginning Farmer Network of Massachusetts Berry Center Blue Ridge Women in Agriculture California Certified Organic Farmers (CCOF) The homepage for California Certified Organic Farmers (CCOF) is a good source of information generally. The CCOF handbook can also be downloaded. Carolina Farm Stewardship Association Center for Urban Education about Sustainable Agriculture Community Alliance with Family Farmers, California Community Involved in Sustaining Agriculture Dakota Rural Action Draft Animal Power Network Farm to Table, New Mexico Florida Organic Growers Foundation for Agricultural and Rural Resources Management and Sustainability, North Dakota Future Harvest – CASA, Maryland GardenShare, New York Georgia Organics Growhio, Ohio Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture, Oklahoma Land Stewardship Project, Minnesota Local Food Hub, Charlottesville, Virginia Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association Michael Fields Agricultural Institute, Wisconsin Michigan Integrated Food & Farming Systems Midwest Cover Crops Council Midwest Organic and Sustainable Education Service (MOSES) NC Women of the Land Agriculture Network Nebraska Sustainable Agriculture Society Northeast Organic Dairy Producers Alliance Organization enabling organic dairy farmers to have informed discussion about matters critical to the well being of the organic dairy industry. Northeast Organic Farming Association Northern Plains Sustainable Agriculture Society Ohio Ecological Food and Farm Association Pennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture Practical Farmers of Iowa Roots of Resilience–the Pacific Northwest Center for Holistic Management Rural Roots Rural Roots is a regional, 501(c)3 nonprofit food and farming organization dedicated to creating connections between sustainable producers, consumers, and other regional food and agricultural organizations. Samuel Roberts Noble Foundation, Oklahoma Southwest Marketing Network Sustainable Farming Association of Minnesota Tennessee Organic Growers Association Texas Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association The Ethical Farming Fund Tilth Alliance, Washington Tilth Producers, Washington Virginia Association for Biological Farming Wallace Center at Winrock International   ⇒ Links to State Sustainable or Organic Agriculture Websites   California Organic Program The text of The California Organic Foods Act of 2003 can be downloaded from this site, as well as organic sales reports. Energy and Sustainable Agriculture, Minnesota Department of Agriculture Montana Organic Program North Dakota Organic Advisory Board Oregon Organic Certification Program Organic Agriculture, Georgia Department of Agriculture Organic Certification in Virginia Organic Certification Program, Idaho Department of Agriculture Organic Farming Information Center, New York State Department of Agriculture and Markets Washington State Department of Agriculture Organic Food Program ⇒ Regional Centers for Rural Development   North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development Southern Rural Development Center Western Rural Development Center ⇒ Links to Agricultural Directories and Virtual Libraries   AgNIC (Agriculture Network Information Collaborative) CyberStacks(sm) Sustainable Agriculture Library ⇒ Links to Other Education Information   2012 Organic Land Grant University Assessment Organic Farming Research Foundation scored Land Grant universities on eight points including maintaining organic research land, cultivating student organic farm, offering an organic minor, major or certificate, and employing a dedicated organic faculty or staff member. The report is online in PDF. All Farmers Resources for Service Providers All Farmers offers an online selection of resources for working with English Language Learners (ELL) and new American farmers. Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) AFSIC maintains the nationwide “Educational and Training Opportunities in Sustainable Agriculture” directory which is searchable online by state, academic program or keyword. How to Conduct Research on Your Farm or Ranch This Sustainable Agriculture Network bulletin describes how to conduct research at the farm level, with practical tips for both crop and livestock producers, as well as a comprehensive list of more in-depth resources. Making the Farm Connection: Farm-to-School Farm Visit Manual Community Alliance with Family Farmers developed this manual to let farmers know what to expect when hosting a farm visit, and to prepare teachers and classes so that they may get the most out of their farm visit. The farm visit concepts outlined in this manual are best suited for students between second and sixth grades. The manual is available as a PDF file. Meeting the Diverse Needs of Limited-Resource Producers: An Educator’s Guide This 16-page bulletin from SARE is intended to be a resource for agricultural educators, heads of community development and agricultural organizations, government agency staff, and others who want to better connect with and improve the lives of farmers and ranchers who remain hard to reach. The free bulletin features nine success stories from around the country as a jumping off point for adapting innovative programs to varied areas. It also provides “how-to” ideas for educators, socio-economic characteristics/barriers to working with varied audiences, proven teaching methods and successful connection strategies. National Farm to School Network Sustainable Agriculture Resources and Programs for K-12 Youth This 16-page publication from SARE, updated in 2011, is a guide to sustainable agriculture-oriented educational opportunities for schoolchildren that features more than 50 programs and curricula nationwide. The publication includes direct links, program contact information, and ideas for integrating lessons into school programs. It is available online in PDF. The Western Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education (SARE) Farm Internship Curriculum This curriculum was designed to be used by individual farmers during the course of the workweek. Ideally, a farmer will use the In-Field curriculum when he or she is demonstrating a new task to interns. Its companion Handbook was authored by Maud Powell and developed and tested by Oregon farmers and interns. It details successful methods of recruitment, hiring, negotiating with, training, and managing interns. ⇒ Links to Sustainable Agriculture Educational Programs   University and College Programs 100 Beef Cow Advantage Program and 100 Acre Farm Advantage Program Nebraska College of Technical Agriculture Agriculture, Food and Environment Tufts University Agroecology Concentration University of Illinois Agroecology Masters Program University of Wisconsin-Madison Agroecology Minor Program North Carolina State University Agroecology Program University of Wyoming Agroecology, Ethnobiology, and Sustainable Food Systems Prescott College, Arizona Agroecosystems Management Program Ohio State University Center for Agroecology & Sustainable Food Systems University of California at Santa Cruz Diversified Agriculture Vermont Technical College Dual Major in EcoGastronomy University of New Hampshire Ecological Agriculture Major University of Vermont Entrepreneurial and Diversified Agriculture Program Marshalltown Community College, Iowa Entrepreneurial Center for Horticulture and Sustainable Vegetable Production Program Dakota College of Bottineau Farmer Training Program University of Vermont Farming and Food Systems College of the Atlantic Food Hub Management Certificate Program University of Vermont Graduate Program in Sustainable Agriculture Iowa State University Integrated Resource Management Colorado State University Interdisciplinary Studies Program in Organic Agriculture Colorado State University Major in Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems University of New Hampshire Office of Continuing Professional Education Rutgers University, New Jersey Online Associate Degree in Sustainable Food and Farming UMass Amherst Stockbridge School of Agriculture Online Organic Agriculture Undergraduate Certificate Washington State University Organic and Sustainable Crop Production Minor University of Florida Organic Farmer Training Program Michigan State University School of Food and Agriculture University of Maine School of the New American Farmstead Sterling College, Vermont Sustainable Agriculture & Food Production Program Green Mountain College, Vermont Sustainable Agriculture & Food Systems Sterling College, Vermont Sustainable Agriculture and Food Systems Major Agricultural Sustainability Institute at UC Davis Sustainable Agriculture Associate Degree Program The Ohio State University Agricultural Technical Institute Sustainable Agriculture Bachelor of Science Unity College Sustainable Agriculture Education Association Sustainable Agriculture Program University of Kentucky Sustainable Agriculture Program, CAFNR University of Missouri-Columbia Sustainable Agriculture Program, CCCC Central Carolina Community College Sustainable Food & Farming University of Massachusetts Sustainable Food and Bioenergy Systems Program Montana State University Sustainable Food and Farming Emphasis / Program in Ecological Agriculture and Society (PEAS) University of Montana Urban Food Systems Kansas State University Organic Dairy California State University, Chico Organic Dairy Organic Dairy Research Farm, University of New Hampshire West Central Research and Outreach Center, University of Minnesota Other Training Programs Hundreds of new support and training programs for beginning farmers around the country have been launched with funding provided by USDA’s Beginning Farmer & Rancher Development Program. The best place to learn about all these programs is the searchable Start2Farm clearinghouse, a comprehensive “one-stop” resource created and maintained by the National Agricultural Library in partnership with the American Farm Bureau Federation. Agriculture and Land-Based Training Association Aprovecho – Education for Sustainable Living California Farm Academy Central Illinois Farm Beginnings Certificate in Applied Agroecology Program (online), MESA Cultivating Success Educational Courses, Foundation for Agricultural and Rural Resources Management and Sustainability Farm Beginnings Nebraska Farm Beginnings, Dakota Rural Action Farm Beginnings, Land Stewardship Project, Minnesota and Wisconsin Farm Link Montana Farmer Training Initiative, Angelic Organics Learning Center Food To Bank On – Bellingham, Washington Groundswell Center for Local Food and Farming Grower’s Academy, Virginia Growing Farms: Successful Whole Farm Management, Oregon Holistic Management International’s Beginning Farmers & Ranchers Program Hudson Valley Farm Beginnings Program Lake Superior Farm Beginnings, Lake Superior Sustainable Farming Association New Entry Sustainable Farming Project New Mexico Farmer-to-Farmer Training Program Northwest Agriculture Business Center Organic Farm School, Women’s Environmental Institute Permaculture Apprenticeship, PRI Cold Climate Rogue Farm Corps The Farm School The Farm School for Women Upstate School of Sustainable Agriculture Virginia Certified Farm Seeker Program Back to top This page was last updated on: September 14, 2017

Urban agriculture is reshaping our cities, and urban farmers and gardeners are creating new opportunities for increasing the economic, social, and environmental effects of growing food in and around cities. There are many benefits to growing food in urban areas, and these benefits are being realized by communities, policy makers, and food-system entrepreneurs. As a result, access to land, capital, and markets is creating the necessary environment for farmers to manage a profitable urban farm. This section provides information and resources specific to urban agriculture. It includes information on community gardens, as well as information for helping urban farmers manage risks associated with farming urban soils. Videos and Webinars Publications and Links Community Farms, Gardens, and Orchards Urban Farm Business Planning and Marketing Zoning and Policy Urban Soils Urban Crop and Livestock Production Controlled Environment Agriculture (Including Vertical, Hydroponic, and Aquaponic Systems) Footnote NOTE: Some of the following documents are available as Adobe Acrobat PDFs. Download Acrobat Reader. ⇒ ATTRA Webinars/Videos ⇒ Additional Resources United States Environmental Protection Agency – Urban Agriculture Resources and Related Links Site provides resources related to urban agriculture. Investing in Healthy, Sustainable Places through Urban Agriculture [PDF] Information on urban agriculture for the production of food for personal consumption, education, donation, or sale and includes associated physical and organizational infrastructure, policies, and programs within urban and suburban environments. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources This site offers resources identified as most useful for urban farmers and local decision makers and stakeholders. The Guide to Urban Farming in New York State This Guide is meant to address the changing face of the agricultural industry, and to support farmers producing food in urban centers and on the urban fringe. It is a collection of topical factsheets including resources and information to answer the common questions of urban farmers. Preliminary Cost-Benefit Analysis for Urban Agriculture [PDF] Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) can provide a powerful tool for communicating the economic value of urban agriculture to policymakers, funders, and other decision makers. This guide introduces the basics of cost-benefit analysis and prepares urban agriculture practitioners to conduct a preliminary-level CBA. A Survey of Urban Agriculture Organizations and Businesses in the US and Canada [PDF] This report summarizes the results of an online survey, conducted during February and March 2013, of 251 groups involved with urban agriculture (UA) projects in approximately 84 cities in the United States and Canada. Urban Agriculture Best Practices and Possibilities [PDF] This report provides an overview of urban agriculture and local food system resources and practices across the United States and parts of Canada, with a primary emphasis on providing resources that can encourage and support urban agriculture in metropolitan areas. Urban Farming Toolkit The Urban Farming Toolkit is a digital, visual guide to starting a garden, designed to provide instructions on gardening at any scale for people at all experience levels. The guide takes the reader through the background of urban gardening, how to plan and build a garden, gardening maintenance, and the financial and legal issues relevant to growing an urban garden. Community Farms, Gardens, and Orchards Community Farms and Agriculture   ⇒ ATTRA Publications   Community Supported Agriculture – IP262 PDF Price: FREE • Summary • Download PDF • Buy Print Copy   ⇒ Additional Community Farms and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) Resources   The Robyn Van En Center at Wilson College The Robyn Van En Center provides outreach and works to gain publicity about CSA farms in order to benefit community farmers and communities everywhere. USDA “Alternative Farming Systems Information Center” Community Supported Agriculture The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) specializes in identifying resources about sustainable food systems and practices in support of USDA’s effort to ensure a sustainable future for agriculture and farmers worldwide. Local Harvest: A Multifarm CSA Handbook This book offers straightforward guidance on cooperative marketing, an innovative practice that is helping CSAs stay strong and viable over the long term. This 130-page book details how farmers in CSA cooperatives can best work together to market their produce, including advice on staffing, volunteer boards, distribution, legal topics and other practical information. A Farmer’s Guide to Marketing through Community Supported Agriculture (CSAs) – University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture. [PDF] Publication provides information that may be helpful to farmers considering the development of a CSA. The Guide to Financing the Community Supported Farm The 62-page guide addresses legal, accounting, environmental, and social considerations relevant to pursuing customized financial agreements, and contains examples of farms who have used alternative financing. Just Food Toolkit: CSA in NYC for Farmers Online toolkit covering information on CSAs including tips on sizing shares and setting prices. Growing Sociability: Integrating Communal Spaces with Development Urban Land Institute article on farm-centered developments. 12 Agrihoods Taking Farm-to-Table Living Mainstream Agrihoods are housing developments centered around a farm. This article provides information on 12 agrihoods that are either established or planned communities.   Community Gardens and Orchards   ⇒ ATTRA Publications   Community Gardening – IP376 PDF Price: FREE • Summary • View as a web page • Download PDF • Buy Print Copy Community Orchards – IP446 PDF Price: FREE • Summary • Download PDF • Buy Print Copy   ⇒ Additional Resources   American Community Gardening Association The Mission of the American Community Gardening Association is to build community by increasing and enhancing community gardening and greening across the United States and Canada. Community Crops Community Crops is a non-profit organization that empowers people to grow food through education, experiences and resources. Community Garden Start-Up Guide by the University of California Cooperative Extension [PDF] This “Community Garden Start-Up Guide” is intended to help neighborhood groups and organizations along the path to starting and sustaining a community garden. National Gardening Association A provider of grants and free materials for educators and families so that they may use gardening as a resource for learning. USDA “Alternative Farming Systems Information Center” Community Gardening The Alternative Farming Systems Information Center (AFSIC) specializes in identifying resources about sustainable food systems and practices in support of USDA’s effort to ensure a sustainable future for agriculture and farmers worldwide. Community Gardening Toolkit by the University of Missouri Extension This guide is intended to be resource for gardeners, garden organizers, Extension staff and other agency professionals who want to start a new community garden, enhance an existing garden, or help community members start and manage their own community garden. Urban Farm Business Planning and Marketing   ⇒ ATTRA Publications   Start a Farm in the City – IP350 PDF Price: FREE • Summary • Download PDF • Buy Print Copy Marketing Tip Sheets – IP394 PDF Price: FREE • Summary • Download PDF • Buy Print Copy   ⇒ Additional Resources Urban Farm Business Plan Handbook This handbook provides guidance for developing a business plan for the startup and operation of an urban farm. It focuses on food and non-food related cultivated agriculture. The information provided is applicable regardless of whether the farm is to be operated as a non-profit or for-profit business. Farming Concrete The Toolkit helps you track your output to showcase the benefits of your farm or garden, to improve and share your practice, and to raise awareness of your impact to funders and policymakers. Urban Farm Start-Up Cost Estimate [EXCEL] Excel Spreadsheet for estimating the costs for starting and operating an urban farm in the first year. Expenses are based on costs experienced in Indianapolis, Indiana. Developed by Purdue Extension – Marion County, South Circle Farm, and Big City Farms. NOTE: Excel Viewer can be used to open Microsoft Excel Spreadsheets International Network for Urban Agriculture (INUAg); Business Models INUAg.org is an up-to-date, organized and searchable, resource for individuals, communities and organizations interested in urban agriculture. Zoning and Policy   ⇒ Additional Resources   Urban Agriculture: A Sixteen City Survey of Urban Agriculture Practices across the Country [PDF] This report surveys the zoning ordinances of 16 cities and explores how these cities have incorporated urban agriculture into their land use plans. Good Laws, Good Food: Putting Local Food Policy to Work for Our Communities [PDF] Toolkit intended to serve as a reference for food policy councils, food advocates, local policymakers, and non-profit entities. Sample Zoning for Agriculture-Like and Urban Agriculture [PDF] Developed by Michigan State University Extension, this publication presents a starting point for what aspects of agriculture can be regulated by local government. This is intended for use by local planning and zoning officials and others interested in local government accommodating various local food systems. Seeding the City: Land Use Policies to Promote Urban Agriculture This toolkit provides a framework and model language for land use policies that local policymakers can tailor to promote and sustain urban agriculture in their communities. UrbanAgLaw.org A Sustainable Economies Law Center (SELC) website that offers a collection of resources on laws and regulations that regulate who, how, and where urban agriculture can occur. International Network for Urban Agriculture (INUAg); Policy INUAg.org is an up-to-date, organized and searchable, resource for individuals, communities and organizations interested in urban agriculture. Promoting Urban Agriculture through Zoning Article by the National League of Cities Sustainable Cities Institute that provides great details on the zoning and permitting aspects of urban agriculture and references many nonprofits, markets, farms, government initiatives, plans, and ordinances. 10 American Cities Lead the Way With Urban Agriculture Ordinances List of ten cities leading the way with innovative urban agriculture ordinances that provide a blueprint for a new economic future grounded in sustainable food production in urban centers. Urban Soils   ⇒ ATTRA Publications   Start a Farm in the City – IP350 PDF Price: FREE • Summary • Download PDF • Buy Print Copy   ⇒ Additional Resources   Soils in Urban Agriculture: Testing, Remediation and Best Management Practices for California Community Gardens, School Gardens, and Urban Farms. This publication outlines strategies for urban soil contamination assessment, remediation, and municipal policy around safe soils for urban agriculture, and offers additional resources for further exploration. Reusing Potentially Contaminated Landscapes: Growing Gardens in Urban Soils. [PDF] A fact sheet developed by the EPA to inform urban growers about common soil contaminants, how to reduce exposure to them, how to improve soil conditions, and grow plants safely. Guide to Soil Testing and Interpreting Results [PDF] Publication by the Cornell Waste Management Institute with information on testing soils for contaminants. Soil testing methodology, test interpretation, and contaminate exposure limits are covered. Evaluation of Urban Soils: Suitability for Green Infrastructure or Urban Agriculture [PDF] This report provides a concise, practical, and scientifically based overview of the typical conditions of urban soils, and offers recommendations for how such soils can be rehabilitated or reconditioned to support green infrastructure or urban agriculture. Brownfields and Urban Agriculture: Interim Guidelines for Safe Gardening Practices This document is a condensation of a 2010 conference that outlines the range of issues which need to be addressed in order to safely grow food on former brownfield sites. Protecting Urban Soil Quality: Examples for Landscape Codes and Specifications [PDF] USDA-NRCS document that focuses on strategies for preventing damage to soil quality and soil function by targeting critical points in the construction and development process. Urban Crop and Livestock Production Urban Crop Production   ⇒ ATTRA Publications   Equipment & Tools for Small-Scale Intensive Crop Production – IP417 PDF price: $4.99 for non-members • Summary • Buy PDF • Get it for Kindle • Buy Print Copy Market Gardening: A Start-up Guide – IP195 PDF price: $2.99 for non-members • Summary • Buy PDF • Get it for Kindle • Buy Print Copy   ⇒ ATTRA Webinars/Videos   Tools for Small-Scale Crop Production [YouTube Video] This webinar, broadcast October 25, 2012, focuses on tools and techniques for small-scale crop production. National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) Agriculture Specialist Andy Pressman discusses the importance of investing in good quality and well-designed tools, their different purposes, and how to use them to properly plant and maintain crops. Small Hoop House Construction Trick [YouTube Video] Organic farmer Saul Padilla explains his trick for constructing a small hoop house that is inexpensive and very strong.   ⇒ Additional Resources   The Guide to Urban Farming in New York State This Guide is meant to address the changing face of the agricultural industry, and to support farmers producing food in urban centers and on the urban fringe. It is a collection of topical factsheets including resources and information to answer the common questions of urban farmers. International Network for Urban Agriculture (INUAg); Production INUAg.org is an up-to-date, organized and searchable, resource for individuals, communities and organizations interested in urban agriculture. Intensive Gardening Methods Virginia Cooperative Extension publication that offers techniques for increasing crop yields. Yield Expectations for Mixed Stand, Small-Scale Agriculture [PDF] A briefing from Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station on yield expectations for farms on the urban fringe. High tunnel data is also included. High Tunnel Production: The Basics for Success and Three Case Studies on Profitability [PDF] A University of Maryland Extension publication summarizing a SARE-funded study that looked at high tunnel profitability. The results show that high tunnels are especially profitable when located close to good markets, such as urban and peri-urban areas. Low-Pressure Drip Irrigation for Small Plots and Urban Landscapes. [PDF] A research report developed by New Mexico State University on designing and using small scale low pressure irrigation systems. Urban Permaculture in Practice Blog site capturing Permaculture design principles for urban areas. Urban Water Harvesting Systems [YouTube Video] Brad Lancaster, dry lands water harvesting expert, speaks at the Tenth International Permaculture Conference (IPC10) about water harvesting need and potential.   Urban Livestock Production   ⇒ ATTRA Publications   Small-Scale Livestock Production – IP411 PDF Price $9.95 for non-members, Kindle price: $6.95 • Summary • Buy PDF • View as a web page • Get it for Kindle • Buy Print Copy Small-Scale Sustainable Rabbit Production – IP445 PDF Price: FREE • Summary • Download PDF • Buy Print Copy Worms for Bait or Waste Processing (Vermicomposting) – IP110 PDF price: $3.99 for non-members, Kindle price: $3.99 • Summary • Buy PDF • Get it for Kindle • Buy Print Copy Vermicomposting: The Basics – IP454 PDF price: FREE • Summary • Download PDF • Buy Print Copy Aquaculture Enterprises: Considerations and Strategies – IP353 PDF price: $1.95 for non-members • Summary • Buy PDF • Get it for Kindle • Buy Print Copy Beekeeping/Apiculture – IP229 PDF price: FREE • Summary • View as a web page • Download PDF • Buy Print Copy   Urban Livestock Guides Urban Livestock from Guide to Urban Farming in New York State by Cornell University Provides links to urban livestock resources and city ordinances. Housing and Space Guidelines for Livestock, University of New Hampshire Cooperative Extension. [PDF] Best management practices that greatly reduce or eliminate problems of odor and fly control, pesticide drift, contamination of surface and ground waters. These management practices allow for properly managed agricultural enterprises to continue operating in residential areas. Livestock Keeping in Urban Areas by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations A review of traditional technologies based on literature and field experience. International Network for Urban Agriculture (INUAg); Livestock INUAg.org is an up-to-date, organized and searchable, resource for individuals, communities and organizations interested in urban agriculture.   Poultry Urban Chickens Urban Chickens is dedicated to the practice of backyard chicken keeping in urban and suburban environments. Nutrition for the Backyard Flock, UGA Cooperative Extension Providing the right nutrition for your chickens means ensuring that what they eat supplies all of the essential amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water that they will need to produce the meat or eggs you hope to collect. Small and Backyard Flocks, by eXtension Comprehensive information for urban chicken flocks, including articles, courses, videos, and publications on all aspects of small scale poultry raising. Managing Manure from the Backyard Flock, Mississippi State Extension [PDF] Resource for ideas on poultry manure use or disposal.   Small Ruminants Raising Sheep and Goats for Profit: Small-Scale Ruminant Production [PDF] Colorado State University Extension publication describing considerations on marketing and production for small scale sheep and goat production; suitable for urban or backyard animal rearing. Maryland Small Ruminant Page An extensive list of resources on raising small ruminants from Susan Schoenian, Sheep & Goat Specialist for the University of Maryland Extension. Nutrient Requirements for Goats Nutrition information and spreadsheet calculators for goat rations developed by Langston University.   Rabbits Rabbit Housing: Hutches, Cages, Wires, Southern University Agricultural Research and Extension Center [PDF] This publication brings together information on rabbit housing and includes the reasons why certain designs, materials, or methods are favored by rabbit raisers. Information Resources on the Care and Welfare of Rabbits, Animal Welfare Information Center [PDF] Publications on rabbit production, a bibliography, and web resources. Fish The Northeastern US Aquaculture Management Guide [PDF] This manual includes information about major production hazards facing farmers, including: predators, diseases, parasites, organisms that have the potential to cause aquatic animal illness and human illness (e.g. toxic algae), biofouling, spread of invasive species, and other operational and environmental hazards. Southern Regional Aquaculture Center Publications Fact sheets on species, recirculating systems, health, disease, nutrition, and water quality. The Urban Aquaculture Manual. Heifer Project International. Useful resource on recirculating systems with further resources. Urban Aquatic Production. RUAF Foundation. Discussion of urban aquaculture systems, benefits, constraints, and urban issues. See additional fish resources in Controlled Environment Agriculture (Including Vertical, Hydroponic, and Aquaponic Systems)   Apiculture Beekeeping Tips for Beginners. University of Missouri Extension. Publication covers location, equipment, plants, diseases and insects, and further resources for beginning beekeepers. John’s Beekeeping Notebook Website created by John Caldeira, Dallas, Texas, with information on suburban beekeeping. HoneyLove HoneyLove is a Los Angeles based 501(c)3 non-profit conservation organization with a mission to protect the honeybees by educating our communities and inspiring new urban beekeepers. Back Yard Beekeepers Association The mission of BYBA is to provide our membership with a forum for sharing knowledge and mutual interests in beekeeping, and to educate and promote the benefits of beekeeping to the public. BackYardHive BackYardHive is committed to information and hive technologies that encourage and enable backyard beekeepers to be successful. Keeping Backyard Bees Information on bees, beekeeping, and bee products. Urban Beekeepers for Beginners Facebook Page Facebook page for beginning urban beekeepers. Controlled Environment Agriculture (Including Vertical, Hydroponic, and Aquaponic Systems)   ⇒ ATTRA Publications   Vertical Farming – IP516 PDF Price: FREE • Summary • View as a web page • Download PDF • Buy Print Copy Aquaponics: Integration of Hydroponics with Aquaculture – IP163 PDF Price: FREE • Summary • View as a web page • Download PDF • Buy Print Copy Aquaculture Enterprises: Considerations and Strategies – IP353 PDF print price: $1.95 for non-members • Summary • Buy PDF • Get it for Kindle • Buy Print Copy Photovoltaic Applications in Aquaculture: A Primer – IP473 PDF price: FREE • Summary • Download PDF • Buy Print Copy   ⇒ Additional Resources (See additional resources on fish in the urban livestock section) Controlled Environment Agriculture: Cornell University Website provides technical information, research, and resources on advanced and intensive forms of hydroponically-based agriculture. Association for Vertical Farming The Association for Vertical Farming is an internationally active nonprofit organization of individuals, companies, research institutions and universities focusing on advancing Vertical Farming technologies, designs, and businesses. Agritecture Industry website providing current information on vertical farming and urban agriculture design, news, business, and jobs. International Network for Urban Agriculture (INUAg); Indoors INUAg.org is an up-to-date, organized and searchable, resource for individuals, communities and organizations interested in urban agriculture. The Aquaponics Association The mission of the Aquaponics Association is to promote the benefits of aquaponics through education and outreach. The Aquaponics Association also provides micro grants to increase public awareness, understanding, and knowledge of aquaponics. The Aquaponic Gardening Community A community and forum for aquaponic gardeners. Urban Aquaponics Online forum, blog, information, research, and resources for aquaponics enthusiasts. Urban Ag News Urban Ag News is an educator providing content through a variety of different media. Through its educational efforts, Urban Ag News seeks to provide its users with a basic understanding of the industry and to keep them informed of the latest technologies. Indoor Crop Production: Feeding the Future Newbean Capital and Local Roots partnered to author this white paper.   ⇒ Webinars/Multimedia   How to Get Started in Vertical Farming and Urban Agriculture: the Next Big Thing for Cities Sustainable Cities Collective webinar on urban agriculture, in particular indoor and vertical farming. Urban Agriculture Audio/Podcasts Hosted by Dickson Despommier and Vincent Racaniello Podcasts focusing on food production within the built environment, including vertical and container farming. The podcasts feature in-depth interviews with many of the world’s leading experts in urban agriculture. Challenges in Vertical Farming Video Series (19 videos) Proceedings from a 2012 workshop that captured the state of the art of vertical farming, defined a research agenda, and established a working group at the nexus of biology, engineering, economics, and architecture. Sponsored by Carnegie Mellon University’s Robotics Institute. Footnote   Funding for this page was provided in part by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Award 2012-68006-30177, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative. Small and Medium Sized Farms Program. For information, contact Andy Pressman: andyp@ncat.org.   Back to top