Scientists at the University of California, Davis, found that heavily fertilized soils in California's Central Valley region are contributing 25 to 41% of the NOx emissions in the state. Meanwhile, NOx emissions from natural soils account for 5 to 9% of the state's total. However, if farmland in California were converted to other uses, such as housing, scientists estimate that greenhouse gas emissions from that land would be 70 times greater. This study, published in Science Advances, suggests potential solutions for reducing NOx soil emissions from agriculture, primarily through different forms of fertilizer management that help farmers identify right rate, timing, amount, and application method for nitrogen fertilizers. Conversion to perennial crops and use of efficient micro-irrigation technologies are also ways to reduce NOx emissions.