Question of the Week
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: The principle concern with no-tilling corn or milo into timothy is going to be plant competition. Certainly, the timothy, being a cool-season perennial grass, will begin to slow down as temperatures reach the 80s. However, stored carbohydrates in the root crown will ensure that it will begin to tiller again once the temperature and water availability reach appropriate levels. Without killing the timothy, it will be difficult to get a good stand of milo or corn, but it can be done.
The best thing to do is to try to "use up" the root reserves of the timothy prior to drilling. This can be done by grazing hard in the fall and again after the spring flush, which can weaken the timothy and reduce its ability to compete with planted crops in the summer.
The next concern will be seed placement of the milo or corn. Using a no-till drill will certainly take care of this. Plant to a depth of about 1.5 inches and increase your seeding rate, as planting into sod comes with some potential problems, such as grubs or wireworms.
A good resource to learn more is an article titled "Seeding Cover Crops into Perennial Sod", written by Gabe Brown, who grazes cattle on perennial pastures and no-tilled cover crops in North Dakota.
In addition, you can find information on a host of topics related to pasture management on the Livestock and Pasture section of the ATTRA website.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: The authorities that govern biodynamic and organic certification are the Biodynamic Standard and the USDA National Organic Program (NOP) Regulations, respectively. Both prohibit the use of treated wood in certified production systems, as detailed below:
Biodynamic: A producer must not use lumber treated with arsenate or other prohibited materials – for new installations or replacement purposes – that comes in direct contact with soil used in certified production or certified livestock¹.
Organic: A producer must not use lumber treated with arsenate or other prohibited materials for new installations or replacement purposes in contact with soil or livestock².
Some certifiers will allow treated wood on certified farms if the wood exists prior to certification. If this is the case, you will need a barrier to prevent the wood from coming into contact with soil or animals. For fence posts, certifiers will usually accept an electric wire (polytape, etc.) as a barrier to prevent animals from coming in contact with the treated wood. Ask your certifier if he or she has an allowance for this practice.
For new construction, you will need to use non-treated wood. I recommend the ATTRA publication Pressure-Treated Wood: Organic and Natural Alternatives. Included in this publication are sections on preservatives applied before purchase, preservatives applied after purchase, and alternatives to treated lumber.
1. Biodynamic Farm Standard, Demeter Association, September 2005.
2. National Organic Program Regulations, CFR Title 7, Apr 2017
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Hairy buttercup is a winter annual that germinates in the fall and flowers in the spring. Non-chemical control is possible and will require a holistic approach. The best way to inhibit buttercup infestations is through plant competition and reducing seed production. It's likely you'll need to combine several of the following management ideas to effectively get the weed under control over the next few years.
1. Allow adequate regrowth of forages after grazing. This better allows forages to grow and outcompete weeds. Separate the field into paddocks with electric wire or tape and allow for no more than three to five days of grazing and at least 30 days of regrowth before grazing again. Rotate the animals throughout the grazing season with regrowth (recovery period) in mind. Overgrazing occurs when animals begin to consume forages that are beginning to regrow, thus diminishing their ability to recover from grazing. This reduces leaf area as well as root mass, and weeds can then fill in their space.
2. Consider grazing fields with buttercup very lightly in the fall, or not at all. Fields that are dense in grasses can provide shade and inhibit buttercup germination. Let the forages get tall in the late summer, say eight to 10 inches of growth, and defer grazing until the winter after the buttercup would have germinated.
3. If the weed is a persistent problem, there is likely a large seedbank in the soil. You can terminate the field in the fall through tillage and plant a dense, diverse cover crop such as annual rye or annual ryegrass and a legume (Austrian winter pea, crimson clover, or hairy vetch). The field could be grazed in the spring and then either: (1) planted to a diverse perennial pasture again; or (2) put into a summer cover such as forage peanuts, soybeans, buckwheat, or sorghum-sudan. Then, you could overwinter again with a fall cover crop and plant permanent pasture the following spring. This method will provide competition to germinating buttercup plants and ensure a reduction in seed development during the spring. It will also provide organic matter that will benefit soil health and resilience.
4. There are no effective organic herbicides for use on pasture weeds. However, vinegar can be used as a "burn down" chemical if spot spraying is warranted. This chemical does not kill the plant, it only defoliates it allowing the forages a chance to grow. Vinegar is non-selective and will harm forages, as well.
For more information on topics related to pasture management, see the Livestock and Pasture section of the ATTRA website.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: The term low-spray has no precise definition. It simply refers to a reduced-synthetic-pesticide spray program relative to a region’s prevailing conventional practices. For example, instead of eight to 12 spray applications during a growing season, a low-spray program using sophisticated monitoring and other integrated pest management (IPM) techniques may consist of only two to four.
The terms organic and organically grown have precise legal definitions. Organic production and marketing of food crops is regulated at the Federal level. Before land can be certified organic, it must be free of synthetic pesticides and commercial fertilizers for three years, and only pest-control and fertilizer inputs approved for organic production may be used thereafter.
Producers who want to label or market their produce as organic must be certified by an agent accredited by USDA’s National Organic Program. For more information, see the ATTRA publication Organic Certification. If your operation is certified organic or if you are seeking certification, check with your certifier before using any pest-control material to confirm its acceptability for organic production.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Mid-May is really late to transplant. The issue is transplant shock: the leaves are transpiring moisture before the roots are adequately established--remember, it's the little root hairs that do the work of sucking up water, and those little roots are almost always damaged during transplanting. It's practically unavoidable.
The large mail-order nurseries will keep their stock dormant in large, cooled warehouses, and you can often get what you want from them. Still, though, the temperature will be warm in mid-May and the leaves will soon emerge and the roots aren't likely to be well established.
The next best situation is to plant potted stock from a local retail nursery, which will almost certainly be leafed out. But if you do everything possible to keep the root ball undisturbed, you can often get away with it. Don't let late-transplanted trees like that go thirsty! You don't need to soak them every day, but don't ever let the ground get dry. Mulch and check the soil regularly and keep it moist but not waterlogged.
For more information on fruit trees, consult the following ATTRA publications:
Fruit Trees, Bushes, and Vines for Natural Growing in the Ozarks
Native pawpaws, persimmons, and muscadines, as well as other non-native species and lesser-known varieties of well-known species, can be grown in the Ozarks naturally, without pesticides. This publication discusses how to overcome common challenges of growing fruit trees, vines, and bushes in the Ozarks and suggests what to look for when choosing a variety that will thrive locally.
This publication introduces community orchards and discusses the history of the community orchard movement and the motivations behind producing fruit in a community orchard. It offers a step-by-step guide to starting a community orchard and advice on choosing fruit trees and plants most likely to provide successful harvests, including apples, pears, grapes, brambles, and other, unusual fruits. A profile of a community orchard program and a list of further resources are also included.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Cultivar selection is a very important decision for a bramble grower because it can determine the productivity and profitability of an operation. The best place to start is by talking with bramble growers in your area to see what cultivars have performed well for them. Your Cooperative Extension Service will also be able to recommend proven cultivars for your region and provide resources with additional cultivar information. Selecting cultivars with resistance to diseases that are prevalent in your region, such as Phytophthora root rot, is extremely important, especially for organic growers, who have fewer options when it comes to disease management.
Two important considerations when selecting cultivars include your market and desired season of production. Knowing the preference of your target customers and the market price of various bramble species will help you narrow down to the cultivars that are best suited to your situation. If you are selling direct-to-consumer, taste might be the most important characteristic, but if you are selling wholesale to a retailer or distributor, then shelf life or post-harvest potential might be the most important attribute for the cultivars you select.
Seasonality is also very important. With primocane-fruiting blackberries and raspberries and season extension technologies, it is possible to produce a berry crop nearly year-round in certain areas. Knowing when you want to be selling your crop and the seasonality of your target markets will also help you narrow in on the right cultivars.
When purchasing your plants, it is very important to buy from a reputable supplier to ensure quality planting stock that is disease- and virus-free. There are few restrictions on proximity when planting different varieties and species of brambles on the same farm. One is that black and purple raspberries are much more susceptible to damage from mosaic and leaf curl viruses than are red and yellow cultivars. Because these diseases are vectored by aphids, black and purple varieties should be separated as much as possible and located upwind from red and yellow raspberries.
You can learn much more in the ATTRA publication Brambles: Organic Production, newly updated in March 2017. Focusing on organic practices for blackberry and raspberry production, it discusses cultural considerations including site selection, establishment, pruning and trellising, and it introduces organic practices for fertility, weed, disease, and insect management. It also provides new information on greenhouse production and season extension and addresses economics and marketing.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Controlling poison ivy is a difficult task, and it may take a long period of time to get a handle on it. Here are a few options for controlling poison ivy without the use of chemical herbicides.
1. Control poison ivy by constantly mowing or cutting young shoots until the plants die. This will tend to exhaust the roots and the plants will die over time. Another way is to dig up the plant roots and all. The roots will resprout if left on the soil surface.
2. Grazing goats or sheep can feed on the regrowth and keep the plants from getting too big. One way to manage the grazing is to rotate the livestock to other areas when the feed is low and then reintroduce the livestock when vegetation reappears.
3. For a natural herbicide recommendation, you might try a citrus oil, vinegar, and soap mixture. The citric acid and acetic acid work to desiccate the leaves, and the soap acts as a sticking agent. This herbicide is only a "burn down" chemical and will not kill the whole plant. Repeated treatments will be necessary to use up the energy reserves in the roots as they resprout.
4. Burning poison ivy is a commonly recommended control option. However, when burned, poisonous particles are released in the smoke and can produce an allergic reaction in the eyes, throat, lungs, and skin.
The ATTRA publication Sustainable Weed Management for Small and Medium-Scale Farms discusses several strategies for weed control, both proactive and reactive, as alternatives to conventional tillage systems. Options include mulching, competition, crop rotations, and low-toxicity control alternatives.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: The natural fibers produced by wooled sheep, Angora goats, and cashmere goats can be used in a variety of ways to add income to the sheep or goat enterprise. There are several possibilities for marketing wool:
• In bulk: ask your shearer for some of the possibilities in your location, which may include selling to a wool pool, warehouse, mill, or wool buyer. You can find contacts at the American Sheep Industry website at www.sheepusa.org.
o Wool pool: producers organize to assemble a large lot of wool, enabling them to have it sorted, graded, and marketed for a better price. You can find your local options through the ASI website listed above.
o Warehouse: the MidStates Wool Growers Cooperative is one example of a group operating this way. See www.midstateswoolgrowers.com/marketing.html for more information on warehouse marketing.
o Mills: if you have a mill operating locally, they might be interested in purchasing fleeces. They might need a specific type of wool or only a large quantity, however.
• Direct to handspinners: either sell the whole, unwashed fleece, or remove dirty locks and wash the fleece to add value.
• Further processed: send the fleece to a cottage mill and have the fleece made into yarn only, or made into yarn and then a finished item such as socks, hats, scarves, toys, or blankets. Items may be woven, knitted, or felted.
• Processed by the farmer into any of the items listed above and sold through:
To learn more, consult the ATTRA resource Tips for Marketing Sheep and Goat Products: Fiber. This concise tipsheet provides useful information such as advantages and considerations of marketing fiber, marketing options, and fiber marketing tips. You’ll also find a list of further resources that can provide avenues for further study.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Specialty vegetables can be considered any variation from the typical market fare. This could be baby, heirloom, or ethnic products. Producing specialty vegetables is a way to set yourself apart in local markets and often command a higher price. Many upscale restaurants are also very interested in unusual and gourmet fruits and vegetables and are willing to pay a good price for these products.
Ethnic vegetables are a way to set yourself apart at farmers markets, but it is important to research a market beforehand. What ethnic populations shop there? If you are already selling at a farmers market, ask your ethnic customers what kind of vegetable they would like you to produce. Many specialty ethnic vegetables happen to be warm-season crops, such as chili peppers, bitter melons, and eggplants; however, there are a host of Asian greens, ethnic herbs, and Italian vegetables that grow well without season extension tools in cold climates.
Baby vegetables are another option. The baby vegetable craze began in Europe about 20 years ago. Many high-end restaurants in the United States have adopted the trend and look to local farmers to supply them. Baby vegetables are also very popular at higher-end farmers markets. The critical production strategy with baby vegetables is succession planting and timing of harvest. For lettuce and greens, you can use your hand as a measurement tool. A common measurement is to harvest baby lettuce greens smaller than your hand. Plant your produce every two to three weeks to ensure that the products stay young and succulent and the optimum size for harvest. For more information see the ATTRA publication Scheduling Vegetable Plantings for Continuous Harvest.
To learn more about overcoming some of the challenges of profitably producing local foods in cold climates through seed and plant selection, season extension techniques, and niche marketing, consult the ATTRA publication Specialty Crops for Cold Climates.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Nitrogen (N) is especially important in sweet corn production, not only for plant growth but also for the production of amino acids that influence flavor and nutrition. Research at Michigan State University showed that 6 percent of the total nitrogen is taken up between germination and the sixth leaf stage, 25 percent from seventh leaf to tassel, 25 percent from tassel to silk and 39 percent during ear development.
A common recommendation in conventional production is to apply 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre prior to or at planting, followed by side dressing with 60 to 80 pounds of nitrogen per acre when the plants are 12 to 18 inches tall.
The Pre-Sidedress Soil Nitrate Test, also known as the Soil NO3-N Quick Test, can determine the need for any additional nitrogen fertilizer. It is now well established that if the nitrate-nitrogen level in the soil is above a threshold level of 25 ppm when the corn is 6 to 12 inches tall, additional nitrogen fertilizer will not increase yield.
Supplemental sidedress nitrogen fertilizers used in organic vegetable production include plant and animal by-products like blood meal, fishmeal and soybean meal, as well as pelletized compost products.
Research in Connecticut determined that 100 pounds of nitrogen per acre from commercial fertilizer could produce optimum yields and economic returns for sweet corn. This research is significant because it found the standard rate used by Connecticut farmers, 160 pounds of nitrogen per acre, was too high. In addition, it provides further support for the organic farming practice of raising sweet corn in rotation with forage legumes. For example, it is generally accepted that a healthy stand of hairy vetch can provide around 100 to 125 pounds of nitrogen per acre to a subsequent crop.
When legume stands are poor and therefore nitrogen is estimated to be lacking, supplemental composts and organic fertilizers can be applied as necessary.
For additional information on estimating nitrogen production and release from cover crops, see ATTRA's Overview of Cover Crops and Green Manures.
Sweet corn does best with a pH of 6.0 to 6.5 and needs moderate to high levels of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Rate of application should be determined by soil testing. Rock phosphate, potassium sulfate (mined, untreated source), sulfate of potash-magnesia (commercially available K-Mag) and a limited number of other rock powders may be used in certified organic programs.
One problem with rock phosphate is that phosphorus is very slowly available. In cold soils, phosphorus deficiencies indicated by purple-tinged leaves may be apparent. Thus, some growers drill a quickly available source of phosphorus, such as bone meal, at planting to insure readily available phosphorus and a healthy crop stand. Other growers simply delay seeding until the weather and the soil warm up.
Growers can apply and incorporate rock mineral fertilizers, manures and bulk composts during field preparation and bedding operations. Growers often make applications in the fall before planting the cover crop. Banding to the side of the row at planting is another option, primarily in combination with organic fertilizers or pelletized and fortified composts.
The late eco-farming adviser Don Schriefer advocated foliar feeding, used in combination with a chlorophyll meter, as a yield-enhancing corn-production practice. To illustrate the importance of photosynthate production in the early life of a corn plant, Schriefer emphasized the following facts relating growth phases of corn to yield potential:
• The number of rows of corn on the cob will be set five weeks after emergence. Rows usually range from 14 to 18.
• Ear length and number of double ears per plant will be established nine weeks after emergence.
While corn is relatively drought tolerant, irrigation increases yields, especially when applied during silking and when ears are filling. If irrigation is not an option and weed management is good, plants might be seeded farther apart to reduce interplant competition.
To learn more, consult the ATTRA publication Sweet Corn: Organic Production. It discusses key aspects of producing organic sweet corn including varieties, soil fertility, crop rotations, weed control, insect pest management, diseases, harvesting, post-harvest handling, marketing and production economics.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: There are different levels of processing, and access to them will affect how you can market your animals.
• Federal- or USDA-Inspected Plants—Federal plants can process meat for nationwide sale.
• State-Inspected Plants—Only about half of U.S. states have a State Inspection Program. State-inspected plants can process any meat, but it is stamped for sale only within that state.
• Custom Exempt Plants—A custom plant processes for individual use. The meat must be stamped "not for sale."
• Mobile Processing Unit—A truck- or trailer-mounted facility that is transported to the processing site. Some are state or federally inspected. Extension.org provides more information in its online resource Mobile Slaughter/Processing Units.
• On-Farm Slaughter (exempt from inspection)—Animals are processed by the owner for individual use (regulations vary by state). To learn more, consult Meat Processing Rules & Regulations, by Extension.org.
The ATTRA publication Working with Your Meat Processor suggests some key ways to work effectively with a meat processor. It covers topics such as building a cooperative relationship, addressing processor problems, understanding meat yields, and more.
A few additional resources for further study are:
Slaughter and Processing Options and Issues for Locally Sourced Meat, USDA Economic Research Service
Beginner's Guide to Local Meat Processing, Niche Meat Processor Assistance Network
Local Meats Processing: Successes and Innovations, by National Good Food Network
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Early blight is a prevalent disease in the humid southeast, exacerbated by late spring rains. Many organic growers are moving to high tunnel tomato production and plastic mulch to mitigate the disease and keep rain/soil splash off the foliage. Southern stem blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) is a soil-borne pathogen to be aware of, which can be devastating and is very persistent in the soil.
If you’re going to go with heirloom varieties, I would strongly consider that you look into grafting. Southern growers have a hard time with heirloom tomatoes because of disease susceptibility, splitting, and low productivity. But grafting on to a rootstock like Maxifort can overcome a lot of those issues and also convey resistance to soil-borne diseases like Southern stem blight.
Now for a list of varieties. This is compiled from my experience and the recommendations of an organic grower in North Carolina, Ken Dawson.
Standard red slicers:
• Big Beef – hybrid, large fruit, your standard home garden slicer
• Celebrity – hybrid, dependable, high-yielding
• Parks Whopper – hybrid slicer with good flavor, will hang on longer than most with early blight
More flavorful/colorful hybrids:
• Martha Washington – hybrid with heirloom quality, pink color
• Chef’s Choice – flavorful yellow/orange tomato, vigorous growth
• Margold – hybrid with heirloom appearance, yellow with red streaks
• Manero – hybrid with appearance of Cherokee Purple, new variety but appears to have promise
• Cherokee Purple – great name recognition, beautiful deep purple color, difficulty with production and cracking
• Mortgage Lifter – large pink heirloom with great flavor
• Sungold – delicious, prolific yellow/orange cherry tomato, very sweet, very popular, hybrid
• Granadero – very productive red plum tomato with good flavor, hybrid
• Plum Regal – hybrid red plum tomato with good flavor and production
To learn more, check out the ATTRA publication Organic Tomato Production. It addresses practical questions on organic tomato production. It focuses on the specific production challenges, including site selection (soil and climate), variety selection, sources of organic seeds and organic annual transplants, organic grafting, planting and training/staking arrangements, soil fertility and fertilization, crop rotation, and pest (insect, disease, and weed) management. Harvest and yield/productivity are closely related to marketing possibilities. While market conditions are extremely region-specific, this publication also addresses a few general principles on marketing and economics of organic tomatoes.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is present throughout North American apple-growing regions. Prior to the advent of synthetic pesticides, the codling moth larva was the proverbial "worm in the apple." Relatively cold regions may have only one generation of the codling moth, while in the warmest apple-growing areas the codling moth may pass through two to three generations per season. Several organically acceptable controls are available and discussed below.
Among the most effective nontoxic controls for codling moth is mating disruption using pheromones—chemicals naturally produced by insects as a means of communication. During the mating period, female codling moths release pheromones that signal their locations to males. By releasing quantities of these pheromones into the orchard, the grower can confuse and disrupt the moth’s mating cycle.
This approach faces two general problems—difficulties with sustaining an even, long-lasting distribution of pheromones throughout the orchard and complications due to the biology and initial distribution of the codling moth. For instance, dispensers can release pheromones too slowly or too quickly, thus allowing mating to occur. Orchard layout is another consideration. For best results, trees should be evenly spaced and of equal heights since treeless spaces and taller trees interrupt the pheromone spread. Cold weather can cause too little pheromone release and hot weather can cause the pheromone to deplete too fast. Since the pheromones actually attract male moths, fruit damage can be worse if pheromone levels drop low enough to allow mating to occur.
Dispensers should be placed as high in the trees as possible, since mating can occur in the air above the dispensers. For pheromone dispensers to be effective, it is important to use them at the recommended rate per acre.
An aerosol dispenser, nicknamed the "puffer," which uses a timer to periodically spray pheromone into the orchard air, is an effective dispensing method. These puffers reduce the labor requirement of tying pheromone twist-ties on to orchard trees. Some of the puffers are allowable for use by the National Organic Program. For organic growers it will probably not be feasible to achieve adequate suppression using mating disruption alone. Growers in California have significantly improved codling moth control by combining mating disruption with black-light traps. Both male and female codling moths are strongly attracted to black light.
Prior to the development of the mating-disruption system, pheromones were used primarily for monitoring to determine the best timing for spray applications. Degree-day monitoring can also be used to this effect. Since insects are cold blooded, weather monitoring can forecast when an event, such as egg hatch, will occur. This information can be obtained by calculating degree days and can be used to implement control methods, such as pesticide applications or cultural manipulations, so that they are used at the most effective time in the pest’s life cycle.
There are several "windows" in the pest’s development that, if detected, can greatly increase the effectiveness of control measures. Determination of these critical periods is especially important, since codling moth eggs are fairly resistant to pesticide treatments, and once the eggs hatch, the larvae will quickly enter a fruit and be protected from sprays. While Bacillus thuringiensis has shown effectiveness with other moth pests, it is not as effective on codling moth, and additionally can be cost prohibitive. A granulosis virus, originally identified from codling moth, has been shown to be effective for control of early-stage codling moth larvae. This virus was developed for commercial use in Europe and has been used in the United States under the brand name Cyd-X. Degree-day monitoring is necessary to time the application of Cyd-X.
The trichogramma wasp is increasingly used in U.S. orchards as a biological control organism against codling moth. The wasps can be ordered from insectaries, which ship them as pupae inside parasitized grain moth eggs glued to perforated cards (100,000 trichogramma per card). Each card can be broken into 30 squares, allowing for even distribution in orchards and fields. Trichogramma parasitize freshly deposited moth eggs, so release of the adult wasps should be timed to coincide with moth egg-laying. Degree-day monitoring can help determine when egg laying is occurring. Trichogramma feed on insect eggs, nectar, pollen, and honeydew. They live much longer and destroy more codling moths when supplied with nectar. Good nectar and pollen sources in and around the orchard, such as borders or strips of unsprayed alfalfa, sorghum, sunflower, corn, clovers, and wildflowers, will increase Trichogramma parasitism of pest eggs. Beneficial organisms are not sufficient by themselves to affect a commercially acceptable level of control; rather, they play a potentially potent part in an overall long-range ecological management strategy. Best results are usually observed after three to five years of releases, as the population of beneficials grows.
Sanitation and cultural practices can help reduce codling moth populations. Woodpiles, boxes, and bins can be a major source of reinfestation, so these should be kept away from the orchard. If wooden crates or boxes are discovered to contain codling moth pupal cases, they can be disinfested by scorching with a propane torch.
In smaller orchards, codling moth larvae can also be intercepted as they descend the trunk to pupate in bark crevices, soil, and certain weed stems. Wrap the trunks with corrugated cardboard, which will provide an attractive artificial pupation site. In areas with only one generation of codling moth, remove and burn the cardboard at the end of the season. If there are two or more generations, the cardboard should be removed and destroyed about a month after the first larvae moved down to pupate. To determine the timing of this larval movement, use the degree-day method described above or employ a trap of a 6-inch-wide burlap strip painted with Tanglefoot and wrapped around the trunk just above the cardboard wraps.
To learn much more, consult the ATTRA publication Apples: Organic Production. This publication provides information on organic apple production from recent research and producer experience. Many aspects of apple production are the same whether the grower uses low-spray, organic, or conventional management. Accordingly, this publication focuses on the aspects that differ from nonorganic practices—primarily pest and disease control, marketing, and economics. This publication introduces the major apple insect pests and diseases and the most effective organic management methods. It also includes farmer profiles of working orchards and a section dealing with economic and marketing considerations. There is an extensive list of resources for information and supplies and an appendix on disease-resistant apple varieties.
Note: The mention of specific product brand names is for educational purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by NCAT, ATTRA, or USDA.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: The American Community Garden Association (communitygarden.org) has offered a 10-step outline for starting a community orchard. Retaining the 10 major headings, the following is an expansion of that outline:
1. The first step is to develop a plan, and the first order of business regarding the plan should be to determine the goals of the orchard, including whom the orchard will serve. In England, where the community orchard movement started, the first goal was saving local varieties in extant older orchards, which were threatened by age but even more by urban development. Other goals might include fruit production for the orchard workers as well as the general public, "private" fruit production on rented plots, fruit production for food banks and the needy, beautification (edible landscaping), and education for children, as well as adults, interested in learning how to grow fruit.
Once a general plan is decided upon, a leadership team should be named to chair the committees necessary to oversee the general plan–committees like fundraising, volunteer recruitment, site selection, legal, and, of course, planning.
The leadership team will establish priorities and among those should be choosing a name and logo for the orchard.
2. The second step is finding a site. In England, the sites are likely to be older orchards already established in the community on private land but threatened in some way and in need of preservation. In the United States, this is not usually the case, and a community orchard group will most likely be looking at public land to find a suitable site. However, depending on the resolve and resources of the group, it is possible to consider finding the best site regardless of whether it’s public or private, and purchasing or leasing the site if it’s on private land. Still, most groups will be looking at public land like parks, a botanical garden, or school grounds, all of which have the built-in advantage of having some public traffic (assuming that visibility is among the goals of the group). Sites that already have community gardens are natural candidates. The site search need not be limited, though, to schools and parks as there is often land in public ownership (city, county, state, federal) that has not been purposed and may not be readily recognizable as public. Check with local officials.
A good orchard site is sunny with well-drained soil and access to water. It should not be in a frost pocket (an area where cold air can settle), and south-facing slopes should be avoided because they tend to induce fruit trees to bloom too early, thus making their blossoms subject to frost damage.
Determine the history of a site to ascertain that there is little to no risk of contaminated soil from previous use (e.g., industrial site, waste dump).
3. Get a contract/lease. Most fruit trees don’t start bearing until they are three to four years old. Moreover, because initial investment in plants, fertilizer, and land preparation can be considerably more for an orchard than for a garden, a long-term agreement with the owner (be it public or private) is a necessity.
At this point, legal assistance would be advised. If the government entity you are working with doesn’t provide legal services, look for a civicminded lawyer willing to do pro bono work for your cause.
4. Get money and materials. In large part to make things easy for the people who want to give your group charitable donations of money and materials, consider forming a 501 (c)(3) nonprofit corporation.
Don’t limit your funding searches to just local sources; depending on your goals and focus, there are national groups that might be interested in donating.
Other focus areas might suggest appropriate donors. For instance, are you focusing on production for food pantries or other needy groups? Does your orchard have a strong educational component? Is historical preservation a main goal? Your goals should suggest to you individuals and groups who would be happy to donate to your community orchard. And don’t forget gardening groups, farm supply stores, landscapers, and nurseries; they are a very likely source of donated tools and plants.
A website or at least a Facebook site is practically mandatory today for any group doing public fundraising. A Facebook site with names and photos provides transparency to reassure potential donors that you are a legitimate and worthy organization. Likewise, media attention provides both promotion and legitimacy. Arrange to be interviewed by local news media and make sure they know about any events (e.g., groundbreaking, planting, a major donation, notice of a workshop at the orchard) that are coming up. The more familiar your name becomes, the easier it is to solicit donations.
5. Find helpers. Identify sources of volunteers, including master gardeners, garden club members, nursery operators, and Cooperative Extension personnel. Remember, perennial fruit culture is more complicated than regular gardening, so it would be advantageous to find experienced fruit growers. Public schools, 4-H, and FFA (Future Farmers of America) organizations should be notified. High school and college horticulture programs are another good place to look.
6. Design the orchard. In designing the orchard, the first consideration should be the project goals from Step 1. For example, if a primary goal is production for food banks, heirloom varieties or exotic species should give way to varieties proven to produce abundantly in your area.
Another primary consideration is choosing plants that do well in your climate and soil without the intervention of pesticides. First, plants have to be chosen that will actually survive the climate and soil types to which they will be exposed. After that, it is practically a given that any orchard open to the public will have to be managed without synthetic pesticides. It matters little what the experts say in this regard; the simple truth is that parents will not tolerate a situation in which they feel, rightly or wrongly, that their children may be exposed to the risks of pesticides.
Consequently, the most disease-resistant, pest-tolerant, climatically adapted plants must be chosen from the start for the pest/disease/climate complex of your region. It will do little good to plant a Bartlett pear in the eastern half of the United States only to have it destroyed by the ravages of fi re blight. Likewise, a muscadine grape with great disease resistance, but not cold hardy past USDA Climate Zone 7, will simply not survive the cold winters of New England.
Another important choice involves the size and scale of the orchard. This is tricky, of course, but the leadership team must try to gauge the level of support that will be necessary and available over the years. If there is any question about such support, remember it is best to start small and excel than to start big and fail. Successes will build community interest and support. Failures will imply that your group doesn’t know what it’s doing. It’s harder to correct mistakes in perennial plantings than in annual gardens; therefore, be humble, ask questions, and think small initially.
The physical characteristics of the site must be considered, and foremost among these for the purposes of fruit growing are shade and drainage (both air and water). Most, but not all, fruit plants will do best in full sun. This relates primarily to fruit bud initiation by the plants, but it also relates to disease management, as quick drying of plant surfaces inhibits growth and infection of many plant-pathogenic fungi and bacteria. But there are fruit trees, like pawpaws, that will thrive in the shade, though they will bear more fruit in full sun. Also, there are fruit species “out of their element,” like raspberries growing in the South, which will actually benefit from a half-day’s shade, especially if that shade moderates the southern and/or western exposures. Also, when laying out the orchard, consider the relative shadow cast from taller trees: in most cases the tallest trees should be planted on the northern border of the site because that will produce the least shade on the orchard site as a whole. Moving from North to South, the tallest trees come first, then plant the medium-height shrubs, next the berry bushes, and finally the ground-huggers (strawberries, lingonberries).
Regarding water and air drainage, as already discussed in Step 2, the whole site should have good air and water drainage, but fruit plant species exhibit varying tolerances to “wet feet.” Cherries, for instance, are notoriously intolerant of heavy or poorly drained soils. Pears and blackberries, on the other hand, are probably the most tolerant of wet conditions. If plants intolerant of wet soil need to be planted where drainage is questionable, consider raising the individual plant site by berming the soil.
Finally, consider adequate walkways, access for mowers, whether fencing is desirable, possible need for a storage shed, and the aesthetics of the whole planting, including the entrance with signage. You’ll probably want an attractive sign with the orchard group’s logo, but it might also be advantageous to have educational signage, as well as posted rules.
7. Prepare and plant the orchard. A good first step on-site is to post a sign to let people know that a community orchard will be established here. The sign could also function to solicit more volunteers.
Ideally, ground preparation starts well ahead of actual planting and includes activities such as performing a soil test, increasing organic matter (turning under a cover crop or incorporating compost or manure), dealing with existing vegetation (noxious weeds like bermudagrass can be serious, long-term problems, especially in berry plantings); adjusting soil pH with lime or sulfur; building trellises for grapes, raspberries, and espaliered fruit trees; and ditching and/or berming to deal with drainage. These types of things are difficult to do after planting long-lived trees and bushes, so try to anticipate future needs and obstacles.
Planting day should be a fun event. Make it so. It’s a chance to get some publicity, so notify the press ahead of time and post announcements on social media sites.
Make sure that the planters understand the basic rules of planting; you’ll probably want to have teams led by people with some expertise. You could also use this opportunity to have your first workshop, “How to plant fruit trees and berry plants correctly.” Make certain at the end of this day that plants are watered in and that someone is in charge of watering during the crucial establishment year.
8. Involve youth. Through public school biology classes, 4-H clubs, youth centers, church groups, and the like, a community orchard can engage kids. Youth will serve as positive ambassadors for the project because they’re going to tell others, including their parents. Making sure the neighborhood’s children are involved is just the right thing to do, but it can also help keep down vandalism.
9. Manage the orchard. As for what must get done for the sake of the plants, managing a community orchard is much the same as managing any orchard. The primary difference is managing who does the work. Volunteers will come and go, but the management of the orchard must have continuity.
10. Reassess the project. Any long-term project should undergo periodic reassessments. Build such reassessments into the initial charter.
You can learn much more on this topic in the ATTRA publication Community Orchards. This publication introduces community orchards and discusses the history of the community orchard movement and the motivations behind producing fruit in a community orchard. It offers advice on choosing fruit trees and plants most likely to provide successful harvests, including apples, pears, grapes, brambles, and other, unusual fruits. A profile of a community orchard program and a list of further resources are also included.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: The basic processing steps are as follows:
Preparation of the raw material often includes removing husks or seed coats from the seeds and separating the seeds from the chaff. There are a wide variety of small- to intermediate-scale approaches to and technologies for effective seed cleaning.
Seed preparation and conditioning
For successful pressing, the seed must be:
• Clean. Fine dust in the seed may clog the oil press hardware. Chaff left in the seed will absorb some of the oil and keep it from getting squeezed out of the expeller. Sand in the seed will wear out the press. Stones damage the oil press screw or piston.
• Dry. Moist seed leads to low yields and clogs the screw or cage, a part of the press. Moist seed may also get moldy, as mold spores are present in all crops. A rule of thumb is that the moisture content of the seed should be close to 10 percent.
The number varies considerably for specific oilseeds. For example, rapeseed should be dried to a 7-percent moisture content, camelina to about 6 percent and sunflower to 8.5 percent. Safflower needs only to be dried to 11 percent and soybean is safe for storage and processing at 12 percent. There are at least two methods of testing seed moisture levels. Hand-held moisture testers allow the user to simply place the seed in the tester, turn it on and select the type of seed to test. The tester provides an instant readout. These testers cost from $400 to $700. Here is a lower-tech, low-cost way of moisture testing: Weigh a sample of seed, and then heat the sample in an oven at 300 degrees Fahrenheit for one hour. Reweigh the sample. The weight lost in the oven is equal to the moisture content of the original sample. Calculate the percentage by dividing the weight lost by the original weight and multiplying the result by 100. Even dry seed can quickly get damp by being in contact with damp earth. Once the seed is dried and bagged, it must be carefully stored to keep it from absorbing moisture.
• Warm. Warm seed will yield the most oil for the least effort. The optimum heat range for oil extraction is from 100 to 160 degrees. There are several ways to preheat the seed in advance of extraction. For very small batches, heating the seed in an oven or double boiler works, as does concentrated sunlight in a solar food dryer or some other solar collector. For larger batches, a heating element in a hopper located between the seed storage facility and the oilseed press works well.
Extraction by cold pressing
Oil can be extracted mechanically with a ram press, an expeller or even a wooden mortar and pestle, a traditional method that originated in India. Presses range from small, hand-driven models that an individual can build to power-driven commercial presses. The ram press uses a piston inside a cage to crush the seed and force out the oil. Expellers have a rotating screw inside a horizontal cylinder that is capped at one end. The screw forces the seeds or nuts through the cylinder with gradually increasing pressure. The seed is heated by friction and electric heaters or a combination of the two. Once the cap is removed, the oil escapes from the cylinder through small holes or slots and the press cake, or meal, emerges from the end of the cylinder. Both the pressure and temperature can be adjusted for different kinds of feedstock.
Clarification removes contaminants such as fine pulp, water and resins. You can clarify oil by allowing it to sit undisturbed for a few days and then removing the upper layer. If the oil needs further clarification, filter the oil through a fine filter cloth. Finally, you can heat the oil to drive off traces of water and destroy any bacteria. Very clean oil is important in all uses, including biodiesel.
Degumming is the process of removing the phospholipids from the oil. Many people advise that you allow the resulting oil to settle out the gums, or hydratables, over a period of one to two weeks. However, you need more chemical processing to make high-quality culinary oil or biodiesel feedstock.
Refining, bleaching and deodorizing
The vegetable oil produced and processed to this point does not need refining, bleaching or deodorizing as long as the natural taste, smell and color are acceptable to the user. However, getting the oil to commercial food grade may be an important step in oilseed processing if your market demands it. For example, restaurants require oils that have a relatively high smoke temperature and may or may not want the taste of the natural oil.
Oil packaging and storage
Use clean, dry containers to package and store oils. Sealed glass or plastic bottles are adequate for small quantities. Colored containers in a dark box help increase shelf life. Steel or plastic tanks work well for large quantities. The shelf life of oil is usually six to 12 months if it is properly packaged and kept away from heat and sunlight. Keeping air away from oil is perhaps the most important step to prevent rancidity. Completely fill whatever size container you chose so there is no air space and then cap the container tightly. Shelf life of oil may vary depending on the type of oil as well as the storage conditions. For example, flax and grape seed have a shorter shelf life than canola or sunflower due to the large amount of polyunsaturates present. If the stored vegetable oil does not reach sustained temperatures of 100° F or more, its vital components will be preserved. Therefore, vegetable oil is excellently suited for natural nutrition. As long as the oil is stored in a dark, cool place, it will have a long shelf life.
To learn more, consult the ATTRA publication Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers. This publication describes the basic processes involved in oil processing and includes sources for more information and equipment.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Generally speaking, biochar is the product of turning biomass into gas or oil with the intention of adding it to crop and forest production systems as a soil amendment. The definition of biochar is more about its creation and intended application rather than what it is composed of. Both charcoal and biochar are produced through an energy conversion process called pyrolysis, which is essentially the heating of biomass in the complete or near absence of oxygen.
Pyrolysis of biomass produces char, oils, and gases. The amount of these materials produced depends on processing conditions. What makes biochar different from charcoal is that the biochar product is created for use as a soil amendment. Biochar can be produced from a variety of biomass feedstocks, but is generally designated as biochar only if it produces a useable co-product for soil improvement. The oils and gases from pyrolysis can be used for energy production. The biochar and energy created can provide a carbon-negative energy source and a useable co-product for soil improvement. However, not all biochars are created equal. The efficiency and effectiveness of the process of its creation and use can vary and the specific biomass sources used can affect the characterization and usability of the biochar.
Complex ongoing research is striving for a more uniform and standard biochar that will limit potential environmental problems associated with biochar production and application to soils. Creating a standardization of biochars may make it possible for people who buy biochar to depend on uniform attributes. Issues such as what should be the ideal moisture and ash content of standard biochar are relatively easy to measure and standardize, but tests for metals and alkalinity are not. Some of the attributes that might be expected from biochars can go beyond just physical characteristics to issues of whether the feedstock used in its creation was from a renewable feedstock, whether its production reduced greenhouse gas emissions and whether the biochar can improve soil quality in a reliable way.
From a practical perspective, biochar can benefit farmers and ranchers because it serves as a soil amendment that can enhance fertility and reduce the need for more costly fertilizers. It also helps retain moisture in the soil, and it may have the potential to significantly mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and slow climate change.
You can learn much more about this topic in the ATTRA publication Biochar and Sustainable Agriculture. This publication reviews the current research and issues surrounding the production and use of this emerging biomass energy technology and explore how biochar can contribute to sustainable agriculture.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Rabbits eat only plants and are classified as non-ruminant herbivores. They recycle feed by re-ingesting the cecotropes. Cecotropes are small particles of digested food that collect in the cecum (hindgut), which the rabbit excretes once a day and then consumes. Cecatropes are sometimes called "night feces" and look softer than the round, hard pellets usually seen. Rabbits require high-fiber diets, which are bulky and low in density, unlike poultry or swine. While purchasing commercial feed is common in commercial operations, there is an increasing amount of research being conducted on forage-based rabbits and other self-sustaining means of feeding the herd.
Rabbits are usually fed a commercial pelleted diet that is balanced in the necessary nutrients (protein, energy, vitamins, and minerals). These diets contain alfalfa, grain (barley, wheat mill byproducts), protein supplements (soybean meal), vitamins, and mineral supplements.
With a small operation, it may be economical to reduce the amount of pellets by feeding rabbits available greens. Greens and succulents include fresh legumes (alfalfa, clover), grasses, vegetables (lettuce, celery), roots and tubers (carrots, potatoes), weeds (dandelions), and comfrey. Clean table scraps that fit into these categories are also acceptable. If greens complement a pelleted diet, the amount of pellets can be reduced by 50% without lowering rabbit production. However, since fresh greens are about 80% to 90% water, it is difficult to raise rabbits solely on these materials because they are not nutrient-dense. Over-feeding of fresh greens may also cause indigestion.
Rabbits can be pastured in outdoor pens placed on the ground, which allows them to harvest their own fresh forage. Fryers can be kept in outdoor pens with wooden slats or chicken wire on the floor to prevent the rabbits from digging out of the pen. Pens are moved daily to fresh pasture, and the rabbits are provided with concentrate feed. Ideally, rabbits won’t graze the same area of pasture again for at least six months to prevent the spread of coccidiosis.
There are many different production models for raising rabbits on pasture. Some producers choose for rabbits to be born and raised to weaning indoors. The weaned rabbits are then moved to portable cages on pasture. Rabbits raised on pasture may take longer to reach slaughter weight.
Rabbits that have been bred for commercial confinement production may not perform well on pasture. You may have to spend time experimenting with breeds and breeding to find the type of animal that best fits your production system. As with any livestock, you should purchase breeding stock that has been raised in a similar manner to your production system. So if you are raising rabbits on pasture, it is in your best interest to buy stock from another pasture producer instead of stock that has been raised indoors and fed only a commercial feed ration.
Growing local feed for rabbits is also an option. Research has been conducted on using water spinach, sweet potato, cassava foliage, mulberry leaves, and other plants and found that such crops can replace or be combined with conventional feed ingredients. Another study claims that growing sweet potato forage along with a small amount of cereal grain for an energy supplement can be a self-sustaining program for a small farm.
Instead of a commercial pelleted diet, producers can mix their own feedstuffs, especially if they grow or purchase their own feed ingredients. Before commercial pellets were available, people often raised rabbits on a diet of alfalfa hay and white oats. This is an acceptable diet if salt licks are also provided.
A legume hay such as alfalfa or clover provides high protein and fiber and can be included at a level of about 50% to 60% of the total diet. A concentrate for energy (grains such as oats or barley) is needed at a level of about 20% to 30%. The grain should be rolled or ground to facilitate digestion. Feeding too much grain can cause a carbohydrate overload in the hindgut and the animal may die from enteritis (diarrhea). Grain by-products that are high in fiber, such as wheat bran or wheat mill run, are also good options.
Adding hay to increase fiber and decrease the amount of grain fed will also reduce enteritis. A small amount of protein concentrate such as soybean meal or sunflower meal at about 10% of the diet ensures adequate protein. Rabbit diets need to have about 16% to 17% crude protein, as well as mineral supplements or salt spools.
The grain and hay ingredients mentioned above are relatively dry (only about 10% moisture). Rabbits do not relish eating a powder-dry mixture. If the mixture is moistened with feed-grade molasses, it will be more palatable to the animals. If the alfalfa or other forage is in hay form, it can be offered separately.
More feed waste can occur with non-pelleted rations than with pelleted rations. The rabbits may feed selectively, and the cage bottom and ground below can become littered with hay. Keep this in mind when considering the cost-effectiveness of feeding home-mixed rations rather than commercial pellets. It may be possible to have a feed mill custom mix a pellet ration.
Having a balanced ration ensures that diets contain the proper amount of nutrients for rabbits during different stages of growth or reproduction.
To learn much more about raising rabbits, consult the ATTRA publication Small-Scale Sustainable Rabbit Production.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: In general, the goal of farm to institution programs is to get fresh, healthy, locally sourced foods into cafeterias in schools, colleges, hospitals, correctional facilities, and senior living centers. There are many ways to bring local food into these types of institutions. Here are a few of the most common models of farm to institution programs.
One great way to start a farm to institution program is to offer a special event such as a "locally grown lunch" that features local food. Special events help showcase efforts around local food while allowing food-service professionals to ease into the challenges of local food procurement and preparation.
Offering and labeling fresh, local items on a salad bar may increase your cafeteria sales as well as improve consumers’ health. Salad bars are an easy way to incorporate local food in cafeteria meals on a daily basis, though seasonal availability may be a limiting factor.
Incorporation into Main Meal
Once a farm to institution program has established relationships with local vendors, it will be easier to increase local purchasing and regularly feature local items on everyday menus.
Employee CSA or Farmers Market
An innovative way to support local farmers while encouraging employees to eat healthy, local food is through an employee CSA program or on-site farmers market. This model is growing in popularity as a part of farm to institution programs.
Many institutions offer catering services that boast an "all-local" meal option as a way to promote farm to institution programs. Such events are also a great place to advertise and educate about local food.
There are many educational and therapeutic benefits of gardening, making gardens an important component of many school, prison, and hospital farm to institution programs. While many institutions utilize their gardens’ food in the cafeteria, others use the produce for cooking classes, nutrition lessons, and other educational activities.
To learn more, consult the ATTRA publication Bringing Local Food to Local Institutions. This publication offers examples and insight into the farm to institution world. Farmers, food-service managers, and community members can use this publication to gain knowledge and resources about how to begin or expand a farm to institution program.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, causes grayish-brown spots on leaves and hard, rough ("scabby") lesions on fruit. As the lesions progress, they often crack, opening the fruit to other problems. Rain, duration of leaf wetness, and temperature determine infection periods. If initial infections are not controlled, they will lead to secondary infections later in the season. Secondary infections begin when summer spores (conidia) develop in lesions on leaf and bud tissues, to be released during wet periods and disseminated throughout the tree. Secondary infections blemish and deform the apples and will also weaken the tree.
The use of scab-resistant varieties is the best long-term strategy for organic growers. The number of primary and secondary infections in a year depends on the amount of rain. The warmer the weather, the more quickly conidia development follows primary infection. If the grower is relying on protective-type fungicides, including all organically acceptable fungicides, then trees should be treated whenever there is a chance of primary infection. Apple scab can be controlled on susceptible varieties by timely sprays with fungicides. For the organic apple grower, there are three commonly used materials: sulfur, lime-sulfur, and Bordeaux mixture. Potassium bicarbonate (the trade name is Armicarb) and potassium phosphonate (Resistim), in combination with sulphur, have been shown to be very effective at controlling the fungus. Trees must be sprayed or dusted diligently before, during, or immediately after a rain, from the time of bud break until all the spores are discharged. Because the scab fungus overwinters on fallen apple leaves, growers can largely eliminate the primary scab inoculum and control the disease by raking and destroying the fallen leaves. Neem has also demonstrated some efficacy in managing scab.
You can learn much more about apple diseases and pests, as well as organic production, by consulting the following ATTRA publications:
Apples: Organic Production Guide
Mention of specific brand names is for educational purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by NCAT, ATTRA, or USDA.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Most methane-electric generation is from animal waste. If you are accepting animal waste by truck, perhaps food waste or brewery waste can be trucked in as well. This will provide the desired variety of feedstock and will greatly increase biogas production. Manure works because it is readily available and cheap, and it naturally contains the anaerobic bacteria.
Check out the ATTRA webpage, Anaerobic Digesters and Other Biomass Options, where applicable publications and other resources are listed to help you learn more on this topic.
In addition, the following ATTRA publications discuss various aspects of a using anaerobic digesters:
An Introduction to Bioenergy: Feedstocks, Processes, and Products
This publication discusses how farmers can utilize bioenergy to reduce dependency on petroleum-based energy sources.
Micro-Scale Biogas Production: A Beginners Guide
An introduction to biogas, this publication gives the basics of small-scales anaerobic digester operations.
Anaerobic Digestion of Animal Wastes: Factors to Consider
This publication discusses the benefits and constraints, as well as design considerations of methane production through anaerobic digestion of animal waste.
The effluent from the anaerobic digestion should be perceived as a resource. The liquids can be packaged and sold as liquid fertilizer, and the solids can be composted (note: un-composted solid effluent from digesters "digestate" is not a very good fertilizer). Solids can be removed with an auger conveyor and run through a belt thickener and/or screw press to remove liquids. Composted digestate can be packaged and sold as fertilizer.
Possible negative bi-products of methane production are the non-methane components of bio-gas: hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. Removal of hydrogen sulfide is considered essential because the hydrogen sulfide will combine with products of combustion to make sulfuric acid, which will shorten the life of the generator. A thin film of aerobic bacteria can be grown on the surface of the manure inside the digester by allowing about 5% by volume of biogas of air into the headspace of the digester. This will decrease hydrogen sulfide gas significantly. The rest of it can be removed with an "iron sponge." Moisture can be removed by condensing in a conventional air cooled condensing unit or cooling tower. Carbon dioxide can stay in the gas stage; it is un-reactive and will pass through the engine and end up in the exhaust. The effect of the CO2 is to decrease the calorific value of the biogas. Apparently, this is not a big deal unless you want to store the gas for some length of time, where you will not want to invest in the capital cost of gas holding equipment for useless CO2.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: The Scotch bonnet pepper is classified as a Capsicum chinense pepper, which is the same species as other chili peppers such as the habanero. These are some of the hottest peppers and are native to the Americas.
I did not find specific information on growing Scotch bonnet in Florida, but recommendations provided for habanero should apply to Scotch bonnet. The University of Florida’s Pepper Production guide provides planting dates for peppers in North, Central, and South Florida. The guide also provides some recommendations of other bell and chili pepper varieties that grow well in Florida. Most of the pepper production in Florida is bell peppers and it does not appear that Scotch bonnet is grown on a large commercial scale – which may be an opportunity for you to sell specialty peppers that would otherwise be imported.
Another University of Florida guide, Common Pepper Cultivars for Florida Production, provides images of common peppers grown in the state. The university also offers a guide titled Jalapeno and Other Hot Pepper Varieties in Florida, though Scotch bonnet is not listed. The Chichen Itza habanero pepper is the closest relative listed in this guide.
There are some common diseases of peppers in Florida that you should be aware of, including Bacterial Spot, Phytophthora, Wet Rot, and Southern Blight, which are detailed in the UF guide, Some Common Diseases of Pepper in Florida. Chili peppers such as the Scotch bonnet are usually more resistant to diseases, but you should still be aware of potential issues. The Pepper Production guide mentioned above includes pesticides that can be used to control insect pests and diseases. Any product that has "OMRI-listed" in the remarks can be used in organic production.
When it comes to starting a successful farm business, there are some important considerations to think about. You will need to do some market research in your area to determine what market you will be able to sell your peppers at and what the consumer demand is for the peppers you choose to grow. You may want to visit specialty grocery stores that sell hot peppers and ask if they would be interested in carrying local Scotch bonnet peppers and how many peppers they usually order per week or month. You will also want to find out what the market price is for peppers in your area to determine how much you could make growing these peppers.
Depending on your scale of production and how much land you are able to acquire, you will need to think about what kind of equipment you will need to purchase. Most of the pepper farms in Florida grow on raised beds that are hilled with a tractor and covered in plastic mulch for weed control. You will need to think about what kind of equipment will be most cost-effective for you starting out, especially for activities like soil preparation, planting, weed control and spraying. Another significant cost will be the cost of labor for hand-harvesting (even if you are the one harvesting).
The Marketing, Business & Risk Management section of the ATTRA website provides a wide variety of useful resources related to agriculture business planning, which you should find helpful, as well.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: It is important to note that any water used in organic operations must meet standards and regulations first set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Safe Drinking Water Act. The use of lime as a water treatment in organic operations depends on the use of the water, i.e., crop production, postharvest handling, or livestock watering, as well as the type of lime used.
Lime is one of the most common methods for softening hard water. In addition, it is used to adjust the pH of water, remove solid particles to lessen the turbidity of water, remove pathogens, and remove other impurities such as silica. Depending on the type of water treatment and filtration system, different types of lime can be used. Some systems call for lime-soda ash treatment (slake lime), and dolomitic lime is often recommended as well. However, these materials can jeopardize organic certification for your farm, depending on how they are used. If organic certification is one of your goals, it is best to always contact a certifying agent and ask if a proposed water treatment would meet certification standards.
One way to evaluate this prior to checking with a certifier is to search the Organic Materials Review Institute’s (OMRI) lists of products and materials used in organic production. OMRI provides third-party verification of organic input materials. Also refer to Subpart G – The National List of Allowed and Prohibited Substances – under the National Organic Program. As you will see, the use of a substance is dependent upon how it is being used in the operation.
To learn more about organic certification and related topics, check out the Organic Farming section of the ATTRA website.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: As good and nutritious as apples, peaches, and seedless grapes are, they are subject to a myriad of pests and diseases in the Ozarks, and most varieties of these fruits can hardly be grown at all without regular applications of pesticides.
On the other hand, native pawpaws, persimmons, and muscadines require no pesticides at all to yield their bounty. And there are other non-native species and lesser-known varieties of well-known species that can be grown in the Ozarks naturally without pesticides. This holds broadly true for all of the upper South, especially the southern highlands from the Arkansas and Missouri Ozarks east, through the southern Appalachians, to the Virginia Piedmont.
The heat and humidity of Ozark growing seasons are especially conducive to pests and diseases of fruit trees, vines, and bushes. Unfortunately, apples, peaches, and grapes—especially varieties like Gala apple, Redhaven peach, and Flame Seedless grapes—commonly sold in local retail nurseries and big-box stores are susceptible to these local pests and diseases. Such plants cannot be grown without the help of synthetic pesticides and fungicides.
People wanting to grow organically or naturally need fruit plants that can be managed without synthetic pesticides. Even home fruit growers who may have no objections to pesticides are busy with the details of life, jobs, and families and frequently do not get around to spraying at the proper time (usually well before symptoms are seen) or simply forget to spray at all. Because of this, species and varieties that can be managed with few or no applications of pesticides are the most desirable.
You can learn much more about this topic in the ATTRA publication Fruit Trees, Bushes, and Vines for Natural Growing in the Ozarks. This publication discusses how to overcome common challenges of growing fruit trees, vines, and bushes in the Ozarks and suggests what to look for when choosing a variety that will thrive locally.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: This year, we’ve seen a tremendous increase in bloat nematode in garlic. I’ve been paying particular attention to it as some of my own garlic is infected, and unfortunately, there isn’t much that can be done to control it in the short-term, either conventionally or organically. In addition, there is a lot of misinformation being offered about control measures. This includes the idea of using a hot water treatment to sterilize seed, which more recent research has concluded does not have much of an impact on controlling infected seed. Chemical treatments are not much of an option either, as fungicides that were originally used for garlic bloat are no longer registered (in the U.S.). I have talked with some organic farmers who soak seed in Oxidate®, which is used to control several types of bacteria and diseases, prior to planting; however, I have not seen this product registered or tested anywhere for garlic bloat.
Thus, we’re left with cultural practices to overcome garlic bloat.
First and foremost, it is important to buy only certified seed for planting. If you are using your own seed stock, make sure that you don’t plant infected cloves. In addition, culling plants at first sign of infection is critical in the field. Just as important is a crop rotation with a recommended four years between crops in the Allium family. Planting biofumigant cover crops, such as mustards, can be beneficial as part of a crop rotation.
Bulb damage can be mistaken for Fusarium basal plate rot, so you may want to have your garlic tested. This being said, the nematode can spread easily in infested soil, on equipment, and in infected seed and plant debris. Keeping weed populations down and all tools and equipment clean can help in combating garlic bloat. The Garlic Seed Foundation has issued an alert for garlic bloat and is referring farmers to the Cornell University Fact Sheet Bloat and Nematode on Garlic.
The ATTRA publication Garlic: Organic Production addresses most aspects of organic garlic production, including seed sources, organic fertility management, pest management and harvesting and storage. Marketing and economic considerations, including enterprise budgets for organic garlic production, are also addressed in this publication. A resource and reference section follows the publication.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Products that are labeled under the USDA’s National Organic Program (NOP) certify that the food or other agricultural product(s) have been produced through approved methods that integrate cultural, biological, and mechanical practices that foster cycling of resources, promote ecological balance, and conserve biodiversity. The ATTRA publication Organic Certification explains the process for transitioning to organic and includes information on the transition period, choosing a certifier, as well as the costs associated with certifying a product or operation.
There are currently 80 USDA-accredited agents authorized to certify operations to USDA organic standards; 48 of these are based in the United States. USDA provides an Organic Certifier Locator, which can help you find a certifier in your area. The tool can be searched by state/province and country. Access the tool and learn more about it here.
Each of the certifying agents is authorized to issue an organic certificate to operations that comply with the USDA organic regulations. As noted in the above-mentioned ATTRA publication on organic certification, there are several criteria that you may wish to consider when choosing a certifier, including the following:
• Fee structure
• Distance to your farm or business
• Accreditation to other standards
• Additional services, such as educational resources or member services
It is recommended to talk to a few certifiers to see which ones are a good fit for you and your operation. As you are starting to explore the possibility of transitioning to organics, now would be a good time to contact certifiers as they may have different recommendations and procedures for transitioning.
While the cost of certifying may vary between different agencies, it is important to note that the USDA offers cost-share programs to assist current certified organic operations and transitioning operations in defraying the costs associated with organic certification.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Choosing and properly preparing a site to install a high tunnel are among the most important factors in how well the high tunnel will perform for years to come. Most urban farms have a limited amount of space and workable soil. Although intensive high tunnel growing methods will make the most use of limited space, the lack of land base on urban farms can make it hard to find an ideal place to install a tunnel. A level (less than 5% grade), well-drained, fertile soil is preferred for high tunnel production. Soil can be prepared after the high tunnel is installed, but starting with deep, well-drained, fertile soil will make the process easier during the first year.
If the site is not well drained, it’s important to elevate the area of the tunnel slightly from the surrounding ground. This can be done with small excavating equipment or by hand if the area of the high tunnel is small enough. Soil can be taken from outside the perimeter of the high tunnel and placed where the interior of the high tunnel will be. This will create a small swale along the sides of the tunnel and a slightly raised plateau in the area that the high tunnel will cover.
Another consideration for installing a high tunnel on an urban farm is shading. High tunnels are usually unheated structures that rely on the sun and solar heat gain to raise daily temperatures and allow for growing crops for an extended season. For that reason, it is imperative that a high tunnel is not shaded by other structures, buildings, or trees for the majority of the day. This is especially important if fall, winter, and spring growing will be a focus for your farm. A good rule of thumb is that if, at a minimum, the area is completely unshaded from 9:00 a.m. until 3:00 p.m. year-round, the site will probably work well. If there is a question as to the level of shading at a certain site, it may be a good idea to have a solar site evaluation. Solar panel installers can conduct these evaluations using a Solar Pathfinder tool to determine the shading of a particular area.
Orientation—the direction the length of the tunnel runs—is another important factor to consider. Most high tunnels that are installed to grow summer crops are oriented north-to-south to limit shading from bed to bed inside the high tunnel, and to allow for airflow from a predominately west wind when the sides of the high tunnel are rolled up. North of 40° latitude, an east-to-west orientation is preferred for cool-season growing because it exposes a larger area of the high tunnel (the long southern-facing side) to the sun. This south-facing side of the high tunnel then acts as a big solar collector and allows the high tunnel to gain heat more quickly.
To learn more, consult the ATTRA publication High Tunnels in Urban Agriculture. This publication covers the basics of siting and constructing a high tunnel, as well as some of the policy and zoning challenges urban growers face when planning to erect a tunnel. It also discusses high tunnel management, including soil fertility, irrigation, and disease and pest control. Finally, it includes resources on intensive crop production and other uses for high tunnels.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Generally in organic systems, preventive weed control is the most effective method of dealing with weeds. But as for what can assist you now, I have found that a combination of approaches is necessary. I'm sure that's no surprise to you as you almost certainly have some weeds that you can control with mulches, while others probably "eat that mulch for lunch!" Various approaches include the use of geotextiles (fabric mulch), wood chip mulch, mowing, some hand weeding around young trees, flame weeding, chickens or weeder geese, and some of the organic herbicides. Try everything you can to keep from disturbing the soil with cultivation, but if you simply can’t manage that, you may find the Weed-Badger to be effective with minimal soil disturbance.
As for organic herbicides, some find a citric acid-based one to be most effective, but soap-based and vinegar (acetic acid) based ones also do the job. Of course there is no systemic organic herbicide, so all of these organic herbicides are "contact" herbicides only; i.e., they only work on what they hit. These don't work especially well on any established weeds--the sprayed part wilts, but the weed sends up new growth almost immediately. As a consequence, to really get decent weed control on established weeds can be prohibitively expensive. However, if you time the use of these organic herbicides so that they're being employed against small, young weeds, you can get some decent control from them.
See the ATTRA publication Tree Fruits: Organic Production Overview for information on weed management both prior to orchard establishment and in established orchards.
Also see ATTRA's Biorationals: Ecological Pest Management Database for more information on organic herbicides and ecological pest management.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Living hedges are fences made of living trees and shrubs. Their installation and use is common in many parts of the world, including Europe, Asia, and Australia. While historically used in this country as livestock fencing, living hedges are being implemented as they offer many additional benefits to sustainable agricultural systems. Living hedges are an important component to Permaculture design as their multiple functions are integrated in the planting of forest gardens.
The benefits of a living hedge include:
-Crops are protected against harmful pests.
-Provides habitat for beneficial predator animals and insect pollinators.
-The living fence can act as a windbreak.
-It can prevent soil erosion.
-Various products such as food, firewood, medicines, timber, nectar, etc can be harvested.
-It can prevent terraces from collapsing.
-It can be used where materials for fencing are difficult to obtain.
-The living fence can save money.
For more information, see the ATTRA publication Farmscaping to Enhance Biological Control. This publication contains information about increasing and managing biodiversity on a farm to favor beneficial organisms, with emphasis on beneficial insects. The types of information farmscapers need to consider is outlined and emphasized. Appendices have information about various types and examples of successful 'farmscaping' (manipulations of the agricultural ecosystem), plants that attract beneficials, pests and their predators, seed blends to attract beneficial insects, examples of farmscaping, hedgerow establishment and maintenance budgets, and a sample flowering period table.
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: Managing manure can be a challenge, especially in large-scale operations. However, if you view manure as a free, plentiful, and valuable resource, you begin to look at it as a commodity in its own right. Marketing manure can be a beneficial, low-risk way for livestock producers to manage animal waste on their farms while incorporating a value-added product into their overall business plan. The opportunity to sell a waste product and recoup an economic benefit while reducing potential environmental liability is a sought-after outcome for many farms.
Many producers raise animals for specific products (meat, milk, fiber) or purposes (recreational activities, horseback riding, youth projects). Although raising animals can become quite expensive considering the cost of feed, veterinary care, and supplies, manure is a renewable and valuable resource that can provide vital nutrients to the soil, increasing soil health and productivity in a sustainable way.
However, managing manure can often be a labor- and capital-intensive part of a livestock enterprise. Additionally, inadequate manure management can pose a potential threat to local water quality through excess runoff. With a little planning and ingenuity, however, livestock manure can become an important value-added co-product in just about any size operation. The two main goals of a successful value-added manure-marketing plan are to establish ready markets for excess manure and to keep operational costs low enough to make a profit from the sale of the manure product.
The ATTRA publication Manure Marketing: A Value-Added Product for Small Operations serves a guide for medium to small-scale livestock producers looking to incorporate the sales of manure into their farm’s business model. It discusses the benefits and considerations involved in marketing manure as a value-added product, and explores several available manure-processing, marketing, and packaging options.
Can I use MAP or DAP Diammonium phosphate or other amendments to improve my phosphorous levels on an organic cattle ranch?
Send feedback » • Permalink
Answer: The number-one driver of getting the soil microbes to cycle nutrients is soil organic matter. Organic matter can be increased, but it will take some time. The fastest way to do so is to no-till in multi-species cover crops (six to 10 species) and to graze them off, taking about one third and trampling in two thirds. I have read of farmers increasing their soil organic matter by 0.8% (i.e., from 3.0 to 3.8%) in one season by doing so. That is a lot.
In addressing low phosphorus levels, I would start with the reported unit from your lab tests and convert it to ppm of P. Different soil testing labs report P in differing units. If your report says 16 pounds of elemental P per acre, then you would multiply the 16 by 0.5 and you have 8 ppm of P. If the reported P is in pounds of P2O5 per acre, to convert it to ppm you multiply first by 0.5 and then again by 0.4364. This would give you 16 X 0.5 X 0.4364 = 3.5 ppm. In general, you would like to see P levels up in the range of 15 to 20 ppm in your pastures.
If your organic matter is more than 3.0 percent, I would consider running a Haney test on your soils. The Haney test takes into account the ability of the soil microbes to mineralize N and P from minerals that are not in the plant available form. I would try the Haney test on a pasture that you have already sampled with the conventional test. It is possible that you have more P than you think if your microbe population is in good enough shape. Learn more about the Haney test.
The best way to improve P levels with an amendment is through the addition of composted animal manure. Manure from cattle, sheep or poultry will supply P and also afford the added benefit of microorganism culture with compost.
Secondly, you can improve your soil’s ability to cycle P, N, and other nutrients by grazing tall grass and trampling in the residual. This requires stocking densities of 100,000 pounds or more of live animal weight per acre. You can find a good discussion of this in the ATTRA Managed Grazing tutorial. Specifically, check out slides 40 through 45 in the Grazing the Mature Stand lesson.
I also recommend that you view the videos Intensive Grazing: One Farm's Set Up, as well as Gabe Brown: Farming in Nature’s Image. You might also be interested in Soil Health and Livestock: ATTRA Resources, which provides a list ATTRA publications, videos, and webinars on soil health.
I believe that these two methods are going to improve P levels and your general sol health, which will, in turn, increase pasture production and animal production over time. If you do decide to put on DAP, you will be ineligible for organic certification for three years. Also, if you do apply DAP, do so sparingly. For instance, you might apply enough to bring up the ppm of P in 5 ppm increments. This will be a little easier on your pocketbook and your soil biology.