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Home  > Question of the Week

Question of the Week

Permalink Where can I find plastic posts, or other alternatives to treated lumber, for building horse fences?


Answer: Below are three Web site listings for sources of vinyl horse fences and posts. The phone number is listed on each company's information.

There is also information about a post wrap that might be of interest. It would allow you to use untreated posts instead of treated posts. I am unsure of the availability of native wood posts in your area, but ATTRA's Organic Alternatives to Treated Lumber includes information and an enclosure discussing native wood species best for posts.


ATTRA publication:
Organic Alternatives to Treated Lumber

Postsaver USA. 2005. Postsaver. 5 p.

Ramm Fence. 2005. Plastic fence posts. 2 p.

USA Vinyl Fence Company. 2005. Horse fence. 2 p.

Vinyl Fence. 2005. Quality horse fence by vinyl solutions. 3 p.



Permalink Are there seed suppliers for the wild oats called uloff?

Thought to be the progenitor of cultivated oats (Avena sativa), Avena sterilis - otherwise known as uloff, eulof, or ulouf - is an invasive weed species that has become naturalized in many parts of the U.S. In Turkey, populations of A. sterilis have recently caused great concern after becoming resistant to herbicides.

A. sterilis is on the federal/APHIS noxious weed list and on similar lists in 45 states (including Florida). (See Before proceeding further, you should check with your Florida Department of Agriculture to avoid sanctions and possibly fines. Seed is not readily available through commercial channels, or from the Seed Savers Exchange. It is not listed as an edible grain in the compendium Cornucopia: A Source Book of Edible Plants. Only with proper permits would you be able to secure some for legitimate research purposes from companies specializing in weed seeds.

Although genes from this species are being studied for possible use in enhancing protein content of cultivated oats, the wild Avena would not be appreciably more nutritious than a commercial box of plain rolled oats.



Permalink Where can I find information about commercial camel breeding?


Answer: The best source of information on breeding and raising camels is the American Camel Club Resource Directory. Contact Rare Breeds Journal at for information on how to get this directory. Rare Breeds Journal usually has a short article on camels in each issue, and two are cited below.

Also under Resources are links to information from the Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection dealing with Animal Import permits, and the Wisconsin Livestock Identification Consortium on Livestock Premises Registration.


Anon. 2004. About Camel news, and About the Camel resource directory. Rare Breeds Journal. September/October. p. 11

Moore, Nimit. 1995. Camel husbandry. Rare Breeds Journal. March/April. p. 53-54.

Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection. 2005. Detailed information for: Animal import permits: Llamas and exotic ruminants. License, Permit and Registration Services. 2 p.

Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade, and Consumer Protection. 2005. Livestock premises registration: Proposed rules. 2 p.

Wisconsin Livestock Identification Consortium. 2005. Welcome. 2 p.



Permalink How can I stop blackbirds from eating my seeded corn?

New York

Answer: Listed below are publications and articles discussing various methods of control for crows and blackbirds. Several discuss the seed treatments and repellents that have been used over the years to control bird damage to corn seed and seedlings. Some of the documents list repellants that might no longer be available. According to the publication Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage--1994 "Blackbirds," the registration of these treatments changes continually, and you should check with your county Extension agent or the USDA-APHIS Animal Damage Control biologists the see which products are currently registered for use.


Anon. 1998. Controlling wildlife damage to corn. Michigan State University Extension. November 2o. 7 p.

Boucher, Jude. No Date. Corn rootworm or crow damage? University of Connecticut Integrated Pest Management. 3 p.

Dolbeer, Richard A. 1994. Blackbirds. Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage--1994. p. E-25 to E-32.

Gauthier, Norman L. No date. Crows and how to minimize their damage. University of Connecticut Integrated Pest Management. 2 p.

Gremmel, Allen, F. Robert Henderson, and Charles D. Lee. 1988. Understanding crow damage control. Kansas State University Extension. December. 8 p.



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