Question of the Week
I purchased a farm that struggled with foot rot within their sheep flock. How long will it take the foot rot organism to leave the ground?
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Answer: Sheep foot rot is a disease in which two species of bacteria work together to infect the foot. One, the "trigger" bacteria, predisposes the foot tissue to infection by the other. The trigger bacteria is gone out of the environment after two weeks once the sheep are removed. In muddy environments, it would be better to wait three weeks. The actual bacteria that cause infection are ubiquitous in the soil.
Before you repopulate the property with more purchased ewes, make sure that the premises (lambing jugs, mix pens, handling equipment, stock trailer) is steam cleaned or scrubbed down with a disinfectant solution such as Novasan (chlorihexadene).
When purchasing more ewes, walk through the seller's flock and check for any sign of animals limping. Ask the seller if he or she has ever had any foot rot cases. Once purchased, it would be best to quarantine them for one month, checking their hooves once a week for any sign of infection.
For more information, consult the following resources:
Contagious Foot Rot, Utah State University Extension
Foot Rot in Sheep and Goats, Purdue Extension
You will also find lots of useful resources in the Livestock and Pasture portion of ATTRA’s website.
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Answer: There are several key diseases that affect apple production, such as fire blight, apple scab, cedar apply rust, summer rots, sooty blotch, and fly speck. In order to properly treat these diseases, it's important to first correctly identify them. To this end, ATTRA created Apple Identification Sheet: Apple Diseases. It includes color photos of several diseases, provides helpful information on how and when the diseases occur, and offers organic and low-spray control recommendations.
For a more complete discussion, consult the ATTRA publication Apples: Organic Production Guide. This publication provides information on organic apple production from recent research and producer experience. Many aspects of apple production are the same whether the grower uses low-spray, organic, or conventional management. Accordingly, this publication focuses on the aspects that differ from nonorganic practices—primarily pest and disease control, marketing, and economics. It introduces the major apple insect pests and diseases and the most effective organic management methods. It also includes farmer profiles of working orchards and a section dealing with economic and marketing considerations. There is an extensive list of resources for information and supplies and an appendix on disease-resistant apple varieties.
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Answer: Organic hayfields typically have problems because nutrients are removed from the fields and are not replaced. This doesn't occur as much in fields that are grazing because of the manure and urine from grazing livestock. And if you add a more diverse plant population to your fields, through cover cropping and complex perennial mixes, you add organic matter that builds soil health and resilience.
For example, you might consider rotating your hayfields to cover crops and livestock grazing periodically to maintain fertility levels, preferably every other year. This may necessitate managing the pastures as several separate units to ensure organic hay is produced each year while part of the land is in cover crops and grazing to build soil health.
Consider a crop rotation to build soil health. Three to four years of diverse perennial pasture can be converted to cover crops and grazed for a year. Consider overseeding small grains like annual rye into perennial pasture in the fall to build soil health and add organic matter. You’ll need to use no-till drill for this planting. Check with your local conservation district to see if they have a no-till drill loan program. Many districts have adopted no-till practices and have programs like this for area farmers.
The cover crop will provide loads of biomass and will return a lot of organic matter to the soil, keeping it covered and feeding soil organisms that provide nutrient availability to growing crops and pasture. You can graze the cover crop hard the next year to allow the perennial pasture or hayfield to emerge, or terminate the perennial field by plowing and plant a summer cover like sorghum sudan or buckwheat.
The more diversity you can get into the fields, the better it will be on soil life. It's a cycle—the soil organisms build soil structure and cycle nutrients, which feed the crops, and the crops provide carbon back to the microbes. Then you can go back to a fall cover crop, and then perennial pasture the following year. This kind of rotation provides cover, reduces erosion, conserves water, buffers soil temperature, and adds organic matter. With this, you can start to build a soil that will be productive and much more fertile.
Rotation considerations—consider multiple management units:
• Some units can be in perennial pasture (grazed)
• Some units can be in perennial hayfield (not grazed)
• Others can be in cover crops (grazed)
The rotation for any management unit would look like this:
Perennial pasture (hayed every other year) > cover crop (grazed) > perennial pasture
For the fallow ground: Consider a summer cover crop > fall cover crop > seed to perennial pasture. Graze the cover crop to add biology to the soil and trample in organic matter.
Perennial fields: frost seed or no-till legumes, such a red clover, crimson clover, or alfalfa. This adds diversity and nitrogen fixation. Also, grazing management for adequate recovery will help the stand improve. Develop a livestock grazing plan to manage pastures for optimum recovery period. Plants need time after grazing to fully recover and this is determined by season and moisture. ATTRA specialists can help you determine how many animals your pastures can support and how to rotate them according to recovery time to keep the grass productive.
The bottom line: If your goals are to raise organic hay and grassfed beef, develop a soil health plan first. Concentrate on building soils with cover crops and grazing, and rotate fields out for hay production so you always have several fields in this enterprise. The hay and beef can be thought of as benefits of your soil health plan.
To learn more, visit the Livestock and Pasture section of the ATTRA websiste, where you'll find a bounty of additional resources.
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Answer: As a producer interested in working with a food hub, it is important to evaluate several components of a hub to see if the operation meets your needs and the needs of your farm. Here are some factors to consider.
• Purpose/Mission – Food hubs target a particular customer base and are often oriented around a specific mission to help meet the economic, social, and environmental needs of a community. By looking at the purpose and mission of a food hub, a producer can determine whether or not the food hub is in line with the goals and values of the farm.
• Legal Structure – The legal business structure of a food hub influences how the food hub operates. Food hubs may be legally classified, for example, as a for-profit business, not-for-profit, or cooperative. Producers may be required to be involved in the operation or governance of the business and should be clear about what is expected of them.
• Types of Markets – Food hubs target specific types of markets that fit the purpose and infrastructure of the food hub. This includes larger wholesale markets as well as smaller retail outlets. The type of market plays a significant role in the products offered by the food hub.
• Products and Branding – Product selection and differentiation help ensure producers get a good price for their products. Food hubs utilize marketing strategies to differentiate products in order to help preserve the identity of the grower, their product(s), and their growing practices. When products are aggregated from different farms, it’s important to know whether the individual producer’s identity is preserved or whether aggregated products are branded under a single identity.
• Price – How is price determined? Is the price representative of any social, environmental, and community values? Is the food hub able to negotiate a price for products that don’t meet grading standards?
• Scale – Food hubs vary greatly in scale. Larger hubs typically work with more markets and in a wider geographical area than smaller food hubs. As a result, they tend to work with more producers and sell more types of products. Scale is important to consider in terms of variety selection, quantity, and price.
• Location – Where is the food hub located in relation to the producer? This is important to consider with regard to whether the producer has to deliver the product(s) to the food hub or the food hub provides on-farm pick-up services.
• Infrastructure – What type of infrastructure is available? Does the food hub have appropriately scaled equipment for processing, packing, storing, and distribution?
• Financing – How is the food hub able to operate financially? Does it have access to capital?
• Age – How long a food hub has been in business is important. Newer operations may not be as stable financially or in their daily operations as well-established food hubs.
• Contracts & Agreements – Does the food hub establish contracts with its producers and/or buyers to guarantee they will purchase from the producer at specified quantities, qualities, and price? What happens if the producer is unable to meet its obligation to the food hub?
• Logistical Support – What type of logistical support does the food hub provide? Do they offer assistance in crop planning? Do they furnish packing materials that are required?
• Insurance – Are there any specific types of insurance coverage required of the producer?
• Challenges – Food hubs face many challenges related to the viability of the business. As a producer working with a food hub, it is important to know what barriers the food hub is currently facing and how they impact the short- and long-term success of the food hub.
Learn more about how food hubs can provide new marketing outlets in the ATTRA publication Food Hubs: A Producer Guide.
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Answer: Persimmons generally bloom late enough in the spring to avoid spring frosts, so site selection does not have to emphasize air drainage to the same degree that other early blooming tree crops require (e.g., peaches). Persimmons grow well on a wide range of soils, although they grow best on loamy, well-drained soils. As with other fruit trees, a soil pH of 6.0 to 6.5 is optimal for tree growth.
The American persimmon can be found growing wild in wet, droughty, clayey, rocky, and sandy soils. However, remember that such wild trees have had the advantage of being grown from seed and are, therefore, sporting a taproot and have not suffered the trauma of transplanting. Transplanted nursery-grown stock will not have the same advantage. Therefore, if planting a new orchard— rather than collecting fruit from wild, established trees—the prudent orchardist will pick a site with, at the very least, good soil drainage.
Rootstock selection is an important pre-planting consideration for Asian persimmons (but not so much for American types because all American persimmons are grafted onto American persimmon seedling rootstock). Asian persimmons for the eastern U.S. are generally grafted onto seedlings of the American persimmon Diospyros virginiana. In the West, Asian persimmons are usually grafted onto D. lotus rootstock.
The main advantage of using American seedling rootstock for the Asian persimmon when planting in the East is that they tolerate excessive moisture and drought quite well; however, they are prone to suckering, which needs to be pruned out annually. (Otherwise, the suckers from the rootstock could “overgrow” and out-compete the grafted tops.) Asian cultivars grafted onto D. virginiana rootstocks also show a lack of uniformity of tree vigor and size. Like all fruit trees, persimmons require full sun to assure good tree and fruit growth, as well as fruit bud development. Trees should be spaced 15 to 16 feet apart within the rows, and rows need to be far enough apart to accommodate mowing, harvesting, etc.
To learn more about persimmons production, including astringency, general culture, rootstocks, pests, and marketing, consult the ATTRA publication Persimmons, Asian and American.
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Answer: In the United States, nearly all of the commercially grown plums for fresh eating are hybrids of the Japanese plum introduced by a Berkley nurseryman in the 1870s and subsequently hybridized by Luther Burbank in the late 1800s. Today, 95% or more of them are grown in California. Burbank made many complex crosses between Japanese and American plums and was the first to cross the plum and apricot. Though the fresh plums in grocery stores today are essentially "Japanese," they might contain germplasm from many species, thanks to Burbank.
Prune plums are European, as are most canned plums. Again, most commercial production of plums is centered in California, but European plums are more cold-hardy than Japanese plums and bloom later, so the European plum can be grown further north.
In fact, plums are adapted to a wide range of climatic conditions; at least some cultivars can be grown in almost every state. Commercially, Japanese plums and prunes are grown where rainfall during the growing season is minimal and humidity low to prevent diseases; this is why most production is in California.
Cold hardiness is excellent for European plums, similar to apple and pear, but Japanese plums are less cold-hardy (similar to peach). Plums have chilling requirements ranging from 550 to 800 hours for Japanese, up to 1,000 hours for European. (A greater chilling requirement means that the plant will be slower to break dormancy, hence, less likely to bloom too early while frost is still a danger.) Rainfall during the growing season can reduce production by accentuating diseases and causing fruit cracking.
As with other Prunus species, deep, well-drained soils with pH 5.5 to 6.5 give best results. However, plum roots are the most tolerant of all the stone fruits with respect to heavy soils and waterlogging.
You can learn much more in the ATTRA publication Plums, Apricots, and Their Crosses: Organic and Low-Spray Production. It focuses on organic and reduced-spray management options for disease and pest problems of plums, apricots, and their crosses (pluots, apriums, etc.). It also relates progress in broadening the practical climatic adaptability of the apricot. The publication also discusses adding these fruits as specialty crops for small-scale, diversified farms and identifies marketing opportunities.
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Answer: Brambles, including raspberries and blackberries, can be a very profitable crop, but how profitable they will be for you depends on several factors. To begin with, your market will determine the price you receive for your berries. You will get premium prices selling directly to consumers at farmers markets, roadside stands, or a pick-your-own (PYO) operation. Other options will allow you to sell larger volumes of berries, but at a lower profit margin. These outlets include wholesalers, cooperatives, and local retailers. Small-acreage growers usually find direct marketing a good fit because it can maximize the returns from their limited production. If you are a small-scale grower interested in expanding production, you may find that a mixed model including both retail and wholesale markets would be a good fit for you. For more information on marketing options, see ATTRA's series of Marketing Tip Sheets.
A 2008 survey of bramble growers conducted by the North American Raspberry and Blackberry Association (NARBA) provides a good reference for average blackberry and raspberry prices. Thirty-four growers throughout the United States responded to the survey. The average reported price for PYO raspberries was $3.75 per pound ($3.15/pint), with PYO blackberries at $2.70 per pound. The average price reported for retail markets including farmers markets and farm stands was $4.75 per pint or $4.06 per half-pint for raspberries and $4.06 per pint or $6.50 per quart for blackberries. Wholesale prices were reported per flat, with a flat containing 12 half-pints of raspberries or 12 pints of blackberries. Raspberry wholesale prices averaged $27.50 per flat, or $2.29 per half-pint, and wholesale blackberry prices averaged $30 per flat or $2.50 per pint.
Marketing arrangements should be made before planting, because brambles are a high-investment crop. If you will be growing certified organic blackberries or raspberries, it is important to find a market that will offer premium prices for your berries to offset the additional costs that you will incur as an organic grower.
Researchers at North Carolina State University developed a budget for organic blackberry production in the Southeast that shows a break-even point three years after planting and a cumulative net profit of $46,203 per acre over six years. Assumptions for this budget include a peak yield of 10,000 pounds per acre in years three and four, a marketable harvest of 80%, and a retail sales price of $5.59 per pound for organic blackberries. A University of California conventional-blackberry budget also shows breakeven in year three with a net profit of $53,431 after six years. This budget is based on production levels of 3,500 trays per acre sold at $16.00 per tray, with each tray holding five pounds of blackberries.
The largest expense categories for the North Carolina budget include material expenses for the trellis in the establishment year, annual harvest labor, and annual production labor. The budget projects a net cost of $15,232 before the berries come into production, showing that a grower will need to have the capital to support the operation for at least three years before a positive cash flow occurs.
In some areas of the United States, raspberries can be a more profitable enterprise than blackberries. A University of California primocane-fruiting raspberry budget shows net returns of $39,235 per acre three years after planting, and break-even in year two. The budget assumes that production levels will reach 5,000 trays per acre (4.5 pounds per tray) in year three with raspberries sold for $15 per tray. Because of ideal growing conditions in California’s Central Coast Region, the production levels in this budget are higher than can be expected in other regions.
For more information, consult the ATTRA publication Brambles: Organic Production. This publication focuses on organic practices for blackberry and raspberry production. It discusses cultural considerations including site selection, establishment, pruning and trellising, and it introduces organic practices for fertility, weed, disease, and insect management. It also provides new information on greenhouse production and season extension and addresses economics and marketing.
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Answer: Because tadpole shrimp do not hatch from eggs until exposed to water, rice that is grown in dry-seeded systems and not flooded until rice is at the 4–5 leaf stage should be safe from tadpole shrimp injury. This practice promotes large plants with adequate root systems when the field is flooded. However, heavy rainfall or flooding shortly after seeding can cause drill seeded rice to mimic a water-seeded rice production system if the field is not able to be drained; this situation can lead to tadpole shrimp damaging rice in a dry-seeded system.
The number one control option for tadpole shrimp is to avoid water-seeding rice and to flood a field after the rice has an established root system. However, in fields that are water-seeded, the field should be seeded as soon as possible after the flood is established because tadpole shrimp hatch once a field is flooded. This will minimize the amount of time that tadpole shrimp grow and maximize the growth of rice plants while tadpole shrimp are still small. The idea is that the rice will grow out of the vulnerable stage before tadpole shrimp can damage the rice.
Draining a field can be useful in killing tadpole shrimp, but rainfall can prevent this from being effective. However, greater input costs (i.e., additional applications of herbicide, fertilizer, or both; pumping costs; and other expenses) are associated with draining.
Here are to resources on this topic that you should find useful:
Shrimp Pest Control in Sight
California Agricultural Technology Institute
UC Pest Management Guidelines: Tadpole Shrimp
University of California Agriculture & Natural Resources
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Answer: Nematodes are microscopic roundworms found in many habitats. Nematodes are the most abundant multicellular organisms on Earth. Most are beneficial members of their ecosystems, but a few are economic parasites of plants. The Columbia, Stubby, and Northern Root Knot nematodes are common in Western organic potato systems and are the leading cause of soil fumigation in commercial potato production in the Northwest.
Root knot nematode feeding reduces the vigor of plants and causes blemishes on tubers. Infection of tubers by the Columbia and stubby root knot nematode often results in the formation of galls that appear as knobs or swellings on the tuber surface and affect marketability. Root knot nematode larvae invade roots or tubers, establish feeding sites and develop into the adult stage. Adult females are swollen, sedentary and lay eggs in a gelatinous matrix on or just below the root surface. These eggs hatch and larvae invade other roots and tubers. Feeding by root knot nematode eliminates the possibility of exportation since infected potatoes are banned in many countries.
There are recent promising developments with biofumigation using brassica mustard cover crops in a rotation before potatoes. Brassica crops such as rapeseed and mustard contain active chemicals called glucosinolates. The breakdown of these chemicals has been shown to suppress some soilborne diseases, nematodes and weed seeds. The best strategy for the ultimate suppression of soilborne diseases and nematodes is selecting a species of mustard that produces large amounts of biomass and glucosinolates.
Also, before incorporating, chop the green manure with a rotary mower or a high-speed flail chopper. The breakdown of the biofumigant seems to be better in moist soils, so irrigate following incorporation or time incorporation to occur with a rain. Jack Brown, a plant breeder specializing in brassicas at the University of Idaho, has released two biofumigant varieties: Humus rapeseed and IdaGold mustard. Each variety contains elevated levels of glucosinolates. For more information on these varieties, see the ATTRA publication Nematodes: Alternative Controls.
To learn more, consult the ATTRA publication Potatoes: Organic Production and Marketing. This publication outlines approaches to organic and sustainable potato production. Practices include fertility and nutrient management; organic and biorational pest management for insects, diseases and weeds; and storage and marketing.
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Answer: No. Internal parasites, especially Haemonchus contortus, have developed drug resistance. Drug treatment gets rid of the worms that are susceptible to that particular drug; resistant parasites survive and pass on “resistant” genes. No dewormer is 100% effective, and we know that worms that survive a dose of dewormer are resistant to that dewormer. Therefore, each time you deworm, the proportion of resistant worms increases, and consequently, frequent deworming greatly increases the rate at which resistance develops.
Each time animals are dewormed, the susceptible worms are killed. The resistant ones survive and will reproduce, thus leading to a population of very resistant worms. Meanwhile, under-dosing causes larger numbers of the intermediate-strength worms to survive. The weakest, most susceptible worms are killed. But because of the weak dose, more of the stronger worms will be able to survive and reproduce, creating a population of stronger worms in the next generation. Once an animal has been treated (if dosed properly), only resistant worms remain. If the animals are moved to a clean pasture they deposit only resistant worms on the pasture, and there are no susceptible worms to dilute the worm population.
Because of this drug resistance, deworming on a schedule may lead to trouble down the road. Instead, pay close attention to pasture management and nutrition, and to your animals' condition. Take fecal samples and use the FAMACHA technique to monitor your animals. Only treat the ones that need it, and only when they actually need it.
Learn more about techniques to manage parasites and to prolong the efficacy of dewormers in the ATTRA publication Managing Internal Parasites in Sheep and Goats. It includes a section on Dewormer Assessment, and also discusses the FAMACHA technique.
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Answer: Cultivated garlic, Allium sativum, is a member of the lily family. It can be divided into two subspecies: Allium ophioscorodon (bolting or hard-neck cultivars) and Allium sativum (non-bolting or soft-neck cultivars). Allium ophioscorodon produces elongated flower stalks, often referred to as scapes, and flower-like bulbils at the top of the stalk. Soft-neck garlic does not produce bulbils except in times of stress. While both bulbils and individual cloves can be propagated vegetatively, bulbils take longer—up to two seasons—to produce mature bulbs, and require special care because the young plants are very small and fragile.
As with all crops, soil fertility management is essential for garlic production. It is a good idea to get a soil test before you begin field preparation. Request recommendations for nutrient requirements for onions when you send a soil sample to a soil-testing laboratory. To find a laboratory, consult ATTRA's searchable Alternative Soil Testing Laboratories database. For additional information on organic fertility management in vegetable crops, see the ATTRA publication Sustainable Soil Management.
Since garlic is a high-value crop and a heavy feeder, it deserves your best ground. It needs full sun and a full range of available nutrients. A pH of 6.8 to 7.2 is ideal; many nutrients are tied up in soils that are more alkaline or more acidic than this. Garlic will grow in almost any well-drained, friable (easily crumbled in the hand) soil, preferably with high organic matter content. High organic matter aids in soil water-holding capacity and drainage. If possible, begin soil preparation the year before planting. In his book Growing Great Garlic, Ron Engeland recommends building up the soil over a period of one to two years using animal and green manures before the garlic is planted. See the ATTRA publication Overview of Cover Crops and Green Manures for information on building soils with cover crops.
Provide additional nitrogen, if needed, through supplemental use of organic fertilizers. Nitrogen can be applied in the fall at planting if a slow-release fertilizer such as soybean meal is used. Avoid applying any form of soluble nitrogen fertilizer in the fall to prevent contamination of ground water as well as loss of nitrogen to leaching. Do not apply nitrogen when the bulbs are beginning to enlarge, since it will encourage excessive leaf growth and reduce bulb size. Another way to add fertility is to sidedress with compost after leaf emergence in the fall, then apply fertilizer again in the spring. Avoid fertilizing beyond May, since high nitrogen levels at this stage may actually decrease bulb size. Some organic growers apply foliar sprays of liquid fish and seaweed fertilizer, several times in the spring.
If foliar feeding is used to supply nutrients, it should be done prior to the 4th or 5th leaf stage. A good surfactant (or spreadersticker) is essential to hold the solution on the garlic's waxy leaves. There are a limited number of spreader-stickers that are approved by the USDA National Organic Program. If you are certified organic, see the OMRI list of approved products or check with your certification agency to ensure that you are using an allowed product.
The ATTRA publication Garlic: Organic Production provides much more useful information. It addresses most aspects of organic garlic production, including seed sources, organic fertility management, pest management and harvesting and storage. Marketing and economic considerations, including enterprise budgets for organic garlic production, are also discussed.
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Answer: Coccidiosis is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan organism coccidia (also known as cocci or by the scientific name, Eimeria), which causes damage to the animal’s intestinal tract so that food is not absorbed well. Recognizing coccidiosis and understanding how to manage livestock to prevent or minimize illness is important for the health and well-being of your animals.
The importance of prevention cannot be understated. Make every effort to reduce stress on the animals and improve sanitation and living conditions. Dry bedding (replenished often with additional fresh, dry bedding) is helpful. This allows the mothers to lie down on clean places, keeping udders and teats cleaner, which helps reduce mastitis and lower the risk of coccidiosis. Gravel or wood chips added to lots promotes dry areas. Provide shelter if weather is cold and rainy, handle animals calmly, and be aware that as the season progresses, numbers of coccidia are building. Clean water and feed troughs, and disinfect feed troughs if possible, to lessen exposure to cocci. Exposure to small numbers of cocci is actually beneficial, as it encourages the building of immunity. On the other hand, exposure to large numbers increases risk of infection.
Once you have an infection, it is necessary to consult with your veterinarian to devise a treatment plan. The plan may include the feeding of ionophores, treatment with sulfa drugs or amprolium, and/or using alternative treatments. Note that livestock that are treated with ionophores or other medications that are not approved for use in organic production systems cannot be certified organic. If it becomes necessary to use these medicines on a certified-organic animal to achieve effective treatment, that individual animal will lose its organic certification. Note also that most medications are not labeled for sheep or goats and, therefore, consulting your veterinarian is essential. Be sure to follow instructions carefully when using any treatment. Using medications in the wrong way will waste money and time and not solve the problem. For example, medications designed to act on early stages of the life cycle to disrupt the parasite (prevention) will not cure established infection. Also, preventive medications must be used at least 30 days before kidding or lambing to prevent the mothers from infecting the young. To be effective, preventive medications must also be used well before weaning to protect the young stock during that stressful event. Again, follow label instructions. Failure to follow all directions will greatly reduce the impact of the drugs. And keep in mind that using medications improperly can lead to residues in the animal. Be sure to follow dosage instructions and withdrawal times.
To learn more about both prevention and treatment options, consult the ATTRA publication Coccidiosis: Symptoms, Prevention, and Treatment in Sheep, Goats, and Calves.
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Answer: The number-one factor in effective pricing is quantifying your costs and selling above those costs. It can be difficult to quantify production costs accurately and estimate profits from sales, but knowing production costs is key to staying in business. You must make sure that you’re making more than you're spending and also know whether your investment in time and money is providing an adequate return.
Organic pricing strategies vary between farmers. Some farmers quantify production costs and add a price margin to assure a reasonable profit margin. Some price according to local market prices. Most farmers likely use a combination of both approaches. Pricing also depends on what market outlet you use—whether you're selling directly at a farmers market or to a retailer like a grocery store or restaurant.
Several factors should be considered when developing your pricing strategy
• Operations, overhead, equipment, depreciation, and marketing costs
• Labor wages
• Profit desired
• Competitors’ production costs and prices
• Demand, customer motivation, and priorities
• Brand, image, quality, and reputation of your products
Don Hofstrand, retired agriculture specialist for the Ag Marketing Resource Center at Iowa State University Extension, stresses three factors to consider when deciding on a pricing strategy. First, consider the cost of producing and marketing your product, which is the minimum price you should set for your product. Second, consider what the buyer is willing to pay. For instance, if you’re direct marketing sides of beef or CSA shares, talk to consumers about what they’re getting and what they will pay, while explaining your costs. Try and negotiate what is reasonable for both parties. Finally, consider competitors’ prices by looking at market prices at venues similar to those you’ll use.
Mary Peabody, from the University of Vermont Extension and Director of the Women’s Agricultural Network, presented a webinar titled Pricing for Profit. The webinar offers information on identifying costs, factors that affect pricing, and pricing survival tips. Peabody's advice is to record costs consistently over time so that you know your expenses and how they change, and also to record all time put in by keeping a labor log. Peabody feels that operating expenses and overhead should be the biggest determinant of pricing if you want to be successful. "Don’t set prices based on others’ prices!" Peabody says. Thinking you have to price competitively with, for example, the price in a co-op isn’t realistic; a small, beginning farmer cannot compete with large producers who have paid off start-up costs. Instead, find different markets or find ways to capture greater value for your products using marketing tactics that aren’t obvious. One example is to use different packaging or bundling.
There are other factors that Peabody says impact pricing:
• Harvesting costs
• Quality and selection of products
• Location and market
• Customer income/demographic
• Sales volume offered
• Supply and demand in your market
• Market price in your area
Your pricing strategy speaks volumes about your business. You will quickly earn a reputation as fair and ethical if you have a good pricing strategy. The alternative is to be known as cheap, dishonest, and desperate among consumers and competitors. Your pricing strategy should be consistent, accurate, and reliable. Many people want farmers to have a good quality of life and are willing to pay a fair price for quality products, so price according to what you are spending and add a reasonable markup.
There are some pricing strategies that may help if you are charging a fair price but not making enough profit:
• Produce more
• Focus on the products that are generating the most profit
• Decrease expenses
• Redefine your niche, customers, or marketing (repackage products in different sizes or by the bunch to get away from the same volume as competitors)
To learn more, consult the ATTRA publication Understanding Organic Pricing and Costs of Production. This publication provides resources to compare organic and conventional agricultural prices, discusses organic production costs, and offers tips on how to set organic crop prices. Several case studies are included that summarize insights gained from successful organic farmers and ranchers.
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Answer: The principle concern with no-tilling corn or milo into timothy is going to be plant competition. Certainly, the timothy, being a cool-season perennial grass, will begin to slow down as temperatures reach the 80s. However, stored carbohydrates in the root crown will ensure that it will begin to tiller again once the temperature and water availability reach appropriate levels. Without killing the timothy, it will be difficult to get a good stand of milo or corn, but it can be done.
The best thing to do is to try to "use up" the root reserves of the timothy prior to drilling. This can be done by grazing hard in the fall and again after the spring flush, which can weaken the timothy and reduce its ability to compete with planted crops in the summer.
The next concern will be seed placement of the milo or corn. Using a no-till drill will certainly take care of this. Plant to a depth of about 1.5 inches and increase your seeding rate, as planting into sod comes with some potential problems, such as grubs or wireworms.
A good resource to learn more is an article titled "Seeding Cover Crops into Perennial Sod", written by Gabe Brown, who grazes cattle on perennial pastures and no-tilled cover crops in North Dakota.
In addition, you can find information on a host of topics related to pasture management on the Livestock and Pasture section of the ATTRA website.
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Answer: The authorities that govern biodynamic and organic certification are the Biodynamic Standard and the USDA National Organic Program (NOP) Regulations, respectively. Both prohibit the use of treated wood in certified production systems, as detailed below:
Biodynamic: A producer must not use lumber treated with arsenate or other prohibited materials – for new installations or replacement purposes – that comes in direct contact with soil used in certified production or certified livestock¹.
Organic: A producer must not use lumber treated with arsenate or other prohibited materials for new installations or replacement purposes in contact with soil or livestock².
Some certifiers will allow treated wood on certified farms if the wood exists prior to certification. If this is the case, you will need a barrier to prevent the wood from coming into contact with soil or animals. For fence posts, certifiers will usually accept an electric wire (polytape, etc.) as a barrier to prevent animals from coming in contact with the treated wood. Ask your certifier if he or she has an allowance for this practice.
For new construction, you will need to use non-treated wood. I recommend the ATTRA publication Pressure-Treated Wood: Organic and Natural Alternatives. Included in this publication are sections on preservatives applied before purchase, preservatives applied after purchase, and alternatives to treated lumber.
1. Biodynamic Farm Standard, Demeter Association, September 2005.
2. National Organic Program Regulations, CFR Title 7, Apr 2017
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Answer: Hairy buttercup is a winter annual that germinates in the fall and flowers in the spring. Non-chemical control is possible and will require a holistic approach. The best way to inhibit buttercup infestations is through plant competition and reducing seed production. It's likely you'll need to combine several of the following management ideas to effectively get the weed under control over the next few years.
1. Allow adequate regrowth of forages after grazing. This better allows forages to grow and outcompete weeds. Separate the field into paddocks with electric wire or tape and allow for no more than three to five days of grazing and at least 30 days of regrowth before grazing again. Rotate the animals throughout the grazing season with regrowth (recovery period) in mind. Overgrazing occurs when animals begin to consume forages that are beginning to regrow, thus diminishing their ability to recover from grazing. This reduces leaf area as well as root mass, and weeds can then fill in their space.
2. Consider grazing fields with buttercup very lightly in the fall, or not at all. Fields that are dense in grasses can provide shade and inhibit buttercup germination. Let the forages get tall in the late summer, say eight to 10 inches of growth, and defer grazing until the winter after the buttercup would have germinated.
3. If the weed is a persistent problem, there is likely a large seedbank in the soil. You can terminate the field in the fall through tillage and plant a dense, diverse cover crop such as annual rye or annual ryegrass and a legume (Austrian winter pea, crimson clover, or hairy vetch). The field could be grazed in the spring and then either: (1) planted to a diverse perennial pasture again; or (2) put into a summer cover such as forage peanuts, soybeans, buckwheat, or sorghum-sudan. Then, you could overwinter again with a fall cover crop and plant permanent pasture the following spring. This method will provide competition to germinating buttercup plants and ensure a reduction in seed development during the spring. It will also provide organic matter that will benefit soil health and resilience.
4. There are no effective organic herbicides for use on pasture weeds. However, vinegar can be used as a "burn down" chemical if spot spraying is warranted. This chemical does not kill the plant, it only defoliates it allowing the forages a chance to grow. Vinegar is non-selective and will harm forages, as well.
For more information on topics related to pasture management, see the Livestock and Pasture section of the ATTRA website.
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Answer: The term low-spray has no precise definition. It simply refers to a reduced-synthetic-pesticide spray program relative to a region’s prevailing conventional practices. For example, instead of eight to 12 spray applications during a growing season, a low-spray program using sophisticated monitoring and other integrated pest management (IPM) techniques may consist of only two to four.
The terms organic and organically grown have precise legal definitions. Organic production and marketing of food crops is regulated at the Federal level. Before land can be certified organic, it must be free of synthetic pesticides and commercial fertilizers for three years, and only pest-control and fertilizer inputs approved for organic production may be used thereafter.
Producers who want to label or market their produce as organic must be certified by an agent accredited by USDA’s National Organic Program. For more information, see the ATTRA publication Organic Certification. If your operation is certified organic or if you are seeking certification, check with your certifier before using any pest-control material to confirm its acceptability for organic production.
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Answer: Mid-May is really late to transplant. The issue is transplant shock: the leaves are transpiring moisture before the roots are adequately established--remember, it's the little root hairs that do the work of sucking up water, and those little roots are almost always damaged during transplanting. It's practically unavoidable.
The large mail-order nurseries will keep their stock dormant in large, cooled warehouses, and you can often get what you want from them. Still, though, the temperature will be warm in mid-May and the leaves will soon emerge and the roots aren't likely to be well established.
The next best situation is to plant potted stock from a local retail nursery, which will almost certainly be leafed out. But if you do everything possible to keep the root ball undisturbed, you can often get away with it. Don't let late-transplanted trees like that go thirsty! You don't need to soak them every day, but don't ever let the ground get dry. Mulch and check the soil regularly and keep it moist but not waterlogged.
For more information on fruit trees, consult the following ATTRA publications:
Fruit Trees, Bushes, and Vines for Natural Growing in the Ozarks
Native pawpaws, persimmons, and muscadines, as well as other non-native species and lesser-known varieties of well-known species, can be grown in the Ozarks naturally, without pesticides. This publication discusses how to overcome common challenges of growing fruit trees, vines, and bushes in the Ozarks and suggests what to look for when choosing a variety that will thrive locally.
This publication introduces community orchards and discusses the history of the community orchard movement and the motivations behind producing fruit in a community orchard. It offers a step-by-step guide to starting a community orchard and advice on choosing fruit trees and plants most likely to provide successful harvests, including apples, pears, grapes, brambles, and other, unusual fruits. A profile of a community orchard program and a list of further resources are also included.
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Answer: Cultivar selection is a very important decision for a bramble grower because it can determine the productivity and profitability of an operation. The best place to start is by talking with bramble growers in your area to see what cultivars have performed well for them. Your Cooperative Extension Service will also be able to recommend proven cultivars for your region and provide resources with additional cultivar information. Selecting cultivars with resistance to diseases that are prevalent in your region, such as Phytophthora root rot, is extremely important, especially for organic growers, who have fewer options when it comes to disease management.
Two important considerations when selecting cultivars include your market and desired season of production. Knowing the preference of your target customers and the market price of various bramble species will help you narrow down to the cultivars that are best suited to your situation. If you are selling direct-to-consumer, taste might be the most important characteristic, but if you are selling wholesale to a retailer or distributor, then shelf life or post-harvest potential might be the most important attribute for the cultivars you select.
Seasonality is also very important. With primocane-fruiting blackberries and raspberries and season extension technologies, it is possible to produce a berry crop nearly year-round in certain areas. Knowing when you want to be selling your crop and the seasonality of your target markets will also help you narrow in on the right cultivars.
When purchasing your plants, it is very important to buy from a reputable supplier to ensure quality planting stock that is disease- and virus-free. There are few restrictions on proximity when planting different varieties and species of brambles on the same farm. One is that black and purple raspberries are much more susceptible to damage from mosaic and leaf curl viruses than are red and yellow cultivars. Because these diseases are vectored by aphids, black and purple varieties should be separated as much as possible and located upwind from red and yellow raspberries.
You can learn much more in the ATTRA publication Brambles: Organic Production, newly updated in March 2017. Focusing on organic practices for blackberry and raspberry production, it discusses cultural considerations including site selection, establishment, pruning and trellising, and it introduces organic practices for fertility, weed, disease, and insect management. It also provides new information on greenhouse production and season extension and addresses economics and marketing.
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Answer: Controlling poison ivy is a difficult task, and it may take a long period of time to get a handle on it. Here are a few options for controlling poison ivy without the use of chemical herbicides.
1. Control poison ivy by constantly mowing or cutting young shoots until the plants die. This will tend to exhaust the roots and the plants will die over time. Another way is to dig up the plant roots and all. The roots will resprout if left on the soil surface.
2. Grazing goats or sheep can feed on the regrowth and keep the plants from getting too big. One way to manage the grazing is to rotate the livestock to other areas when the feed is low and then reintroduce the livestock when vegetation reappears.
3. For a natural herbicide recommendation, you might try a citrus oil, vinegar, and soap mixture. The citric acid and acetic acid work to desiccate the leaves, and the soap acts as a sticking agent. This herbicide is only a "burn down" chemical and will not kill the whole plant. Repeated treatments will be necessary to use up the energy reserves in the roots as they resprout.
4. Burning poison ivy is a commonly recommended control option. However, when burned, poisonous particles are released in the smoke and can produce an allergic reaction in the eyes, throat, lungs, and skin.
The ATTRA publication Sustainable Weed Management for Small and Medium-Scale Farms discusses several strategies for weed control, both proactive and reactive, as alternatives to conventional tillage systems. Options include mulching, competition, crop rotations, and low-toxicity control alternatives.
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Answer: The natural fibers produced by wooled sheep, Angora goats, and cashmere goats can be used in a variety of ways to add income to the sheep or goat enterprise. There are several possibilities for marketing wool:
• In bulk: ask your shearer for some of the possibilities in your location, which may include selling to a wool pool, warehouse, mill, or wool buyer. You can find contacts at the American Sheep Industry website at www.sheepusa.org.
o Wool pool: producers organize to assemble a large lot of wool, enabling them to have it sorted, graded, and marketed for a better price. You can find your local options through the ASI website listed above.
o Warehouse: the MidStates Wool Growers Cooperative is one example of a group operating this way. See www.midstateswoolgrowers.com/marketing.html for more information on warehouse marketing.
o Mills: if you have a mill operating locally, they might be interested in purchasing fleeces. They might need a specific type of wool or only a large quantity, however.
• Direct to handspinners: either sell the whole, unwashed fleece, or remove dirty locks and wash the fleece to add value.
• Further processed: send the fleece to a cottage mill and have the fleece made into yarn only, or made into yarn and then a finished item such as socks, hats, scarves, toys, or blankets. Items may be woven, knitted, or felted.
• Processed by the farmer into any of the items listed above and sold through:
To learn more, consult the ATTRA resource Tips for Marketing Sheep and Goat Products: Fiber. This concise tipsheet provides useful information such as advantages and considerations of marketing fiber, marketing options, and fiber marketing tips. You’ll also find a list of further resources that can provide avenues for further study.
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Answer: Specialty vegetables can be considered any variation from the typical market fare. This could be baby, heirloom, or ethnic products. Producing specialty vegetables is a way to set yourself apart in local markets and often command a higher price. Many upscale restaurants are also very interested in unusual and gourmet fruits and vegetables and are willing to pay a good price for these products.
Ethnic vegetables are a way to set yourself apart at farmers markets, but it is important to research a market beforehand. What ethnic populations shop there? If you are already selling at a farmers market, ask your ethnic customers what kind of vegetable they would like you to produce. Many specialty ethnic vegetables happen to be warm-season crops, such as chili peppers, bitter melons, and eggplants; however, there are a host of Asian greens, ethnic herbs, and Italian vegetables that grow well without season extension tools in cold climates.
Baby vegetables are another option. The baby vegetable craze began in Europe about 20 years ago. Many high-end restaurants in the United States have adopted the trend and look to local farmers to supply them. Baby vegetables are also very popular at higher-end farmers markets. The critical production strategy with baby vegetables is succession planting and timing of harvest. For lettuce and greens, you can use your hand as a measurement tool. A common measurement is to harvest baby lettuce greens smaller than your hand. Plant your produce every two to three weeks to ensure that the products stay young and succulent and the optimum size for harvest. For more information see the ATTRA publication Scheduling Vegetable Plantings for Continuous Harvest.
To learn more about overcoming some of the challenges of profitably producing local foods in cold climates through seed and plant selection, season extension techniques, and niche marketing, consult the ATTRA publication Specialty Crops for Cold Climates.
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Answer: Nitrogen (N) is especially important in sweet corn production, not only for plant growth but also for the production of amino acids that influence flavor and nutrition. Research at Michigan State University showed that 6 percent of the total nitrogen is taken up between germination and the sixth leaf stage, 25 percent from seventh leaf to tassel, 25 percent from tassel to silk and 39 percent during ear development.
A common recommendation in conventional production is to apply 50 pounds of nitrogen per acre prior to or at planting, followed by side dressing with 60 to 80 pounds of nitrogen per acre when the plants are 12 to 18 inches tall.
The Pre-Sidedress Soil Nitrate Test, also known as the Soil NO3-N Quick Test, can determine the need for any additional nitrogen fertilizer. It is now well established that if the nitrate-nitrogen level in the soil is above a threshold level of 25 ppm when the corn is 6 to 12 inches tall, additional nitrogen fertilizer will not increase yield.
Supplemental sidedress nitrogen fertilizers used in organic vegetable production include plant and animal by-products like blood meal, fishmeal and soybean meal, as well as pelletized compost products.
Research in Connecticut determined that 100 pounds of nitrogen per acre from commercial fertilizer could produce optimum yields and economic returns for sweet corn. This research is significant because it found the standard rate used by Connecticut farmers, 160 pounds of nitrogen per acre, was too high. In addition, it provides further support for the organic farming practice of raising sweet corn in rotation with forage legumes. For example, it is generally accepted that a healthy stand of hairy vetch can provide around 100 to 125 pounds of nitrogen per acre to a subsequent crop.
When legume stands are poor and therefore nitrogen is estimated to be lacking, supplemental composts and organic fertilizers can be applied as necessary.
For additional information on estimating nitrogen production and release from cover crops, see ATTRA's Overview of Cover Crops and Green Manures.
Sweet corn does best with a pH of 6.0 to 6.5 and needs moderate to high levels of phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). Rate of application should be determined by soil testing. Rock phosphate, potassium sulfate (mined, untreated source), sulfate of potash-magnesia (commercially available K-Mag) and a limited number of other rock powders may be used in certified organic programs.
One problem with rock phosphate is that phosphorus is very slowly available. In cold soils, phosphorus deficiencies indicated by purple-tinged leaves may be apparent. Thus, some growers drill a quickly available source of phosphorus, such as bone meal, at planting to insure readily available phosphorus and a healthy crop stand. Other growers simply delay seeding until the weather and the soil warm up.
Growers can apply and incorporate rock mineral fertilizers, manures and bulk composts during field preparation and bedding operations. Growers often make applications in the fall before planting the cover crop. Banding to the side of the row at planting is another option, primarily in combination with organic fertilizers or pelletized and fortified composts.
The late eco-farming adviser Don Schriefer advocated foliar feeding, used in combination with a chlorophyll meter, as a yield-enhancing corn-production practice. To illustrate the importance of photosynthate production in the early life of a corn plant, Schriefer emphasized the following facts relating growth phases of corn to yield potential:
• The number of rows of corn on the cob will be set five weeks after emergence. Rows usually range from 14 to 18.
• Ear length and number of double ears per plant will be established nine weeks after emergence.
While corn is relatively drought tolerant, irrigation increases yields, especially when applied during silking and when ears are filling. If irrigation is not an option and weed management is good, plants might be seeded farther apart to reduce interplant competition.
To learn more, consult the ATTRA publication Sweet Corn: Organic Production. It discusses key aspects of producing organic sweet corn including varieties, soil fertility, crop rotations, weed control, insect pest management, diseases, harvesting, post-harvest handling, marketing and production economics.
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Answer: There are different levels of processing, and access to them will affect how you can market your animals.
• Federal- or USDA-Inspected Plants—Federal plants can process meat for nationwide sale.
• State-Inspected Plants—Only about half of U.S. states have a State Inspection Program. State-inspected plants can process any meat, but it is stamped for sale only within that state.
• Custom Exempt Plants—A custom plant processes for individual use. The meat must be stamped "not for sale."
• Mobile Processing Unit—A truck- or trailer-mounted facility that is transported to the processing site. Some are state or federally inspected. Extension.org provides more information in its online resource Mobile Slaughter/Processing Units.
• On-Farm Slaughter (exempt from inspection)—Animals are processed by the owner for individual use (regulations vary by state). To learn more, consult Meat Processing Rules & Regulations, by Extension.org.
The ATTRA publication Working with Your Meat Processor suggests some key ways to work effectively with a meat processor. It covers topics such as building a cooperative relationship, addressing processor problems, understanding meat yields, and more.
A few additional resources for further study are:
Slaughter and Processing Options and Issues for Locally Sourced Meat, USDA Economic Research Service
Beginner's Guide to Local Meat Processing, Niche Meat Processor Assistance Network
Local Meats Processing: Successes and Innovations, by National Good Food Network
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Answer: Early blight is a prevalent disease in the humid southeast, exacerbated by late spring rains. Many organic growers are moving to high tunnel tomato production and plastic mulch to mitigate the disease and keep rain/soil splash off the foliage. Southern stem blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) is a soil-borne pathogen to be aware of, which can be devastating and is very persistent in the soil.
If you’re going to go with heirloom varieties, I would strongly consider that you look into grafting. Southern growers have a hard time with heirloom tomatoes because of disease susceptibility, splitting, and low productivity. But grafting on to a rootstock like Maxifort can overcome a lot of those issues and also convey resistance to soil-borne diseases like Southern stem blight.
Now for a list of varieties. This is compiled from my experience and the recommendations of an organic grower in North Carolina, Ken Dawson.
Standard red slicers:
• Big Beef – hybrid, large fruit, your standard home garden slicer
• Celebrity – hybrid, dependable, high-yielding
• Parks Whopper – hybrid slicer with good flavor, will hang on longer than most with early blight
More flavorful/colorful hybrids:
• Martha Washington – hybrid with heirloom quality, pink color
• Chef’s Choice – flavorful yellow/orange tomato, vigorous growth
• Margold – hybrid with heirloom appearance, yellow with red streaks
• Manero – hybrid with appearance of Cherokee Purple, new variety but appears to have promise
• Cherokee Purple – great name recognition, beautiful deep purple color, difficulty with production and cracking
• Mortgage Lifter – large pink heirloom with great flavor
• Sungold – delicious, prolific yellow/orange cherry tomato, very sweet, very popular, hybrid
• Granadero – very productive red plum tomato with good flavor, hybrid
• Plum Regal – hybrid red plum tomato with good flavor and production
To learn more, check out the ATTRA publication Organic Tomato Production. It addresses practical questions on organic tomato production. It focuses on the specific production challenges, including site selection (soil and climate), variety selection, sources of organic seeds and organic annual transplants, organic grafting, planting and training/staking arrangements, soil fertility and fertilization, crop rotation, and pest (insect, disease, and weed) management. Harvest and yield/productivity are closely related to marketing possibilities. While market conditions are extremely region-specific, this publication also addresses a few general principles on marketing and economics of organic tomatoes.
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Answer: The codling moth, Cydia pomonella, is present throughout North American apple-growing regions. Prior to the advent of synthetic pesticides, the codling moth larva was the proverbial "worm in the apple." Relatively cold regions may have only one generation of the codling moth, while in the warmest apple-growing areas the codling moth may pass through two to three generations per season. Several organically acceptable controls are available and discussed below.
Among the most effective nontoxic controls for codling moth is mating disruption using pheromones—chemicals naturally produced by insects as a means of communication. During the mating period, female codling moths release pheromones that signal their locations to males. By releasing quantities of these pheromones into the orchard, the grower can confuse and disrupt the moth’s mating cycle.
This approach faces two general problems—difficulties with sustaining an even, long-lasting distribution of pheromones throughout the orchard and complications due to the biology and initial distribution of the codling moth. For instance, dispensers can release pheromones too slowly or too quickly, thus allowing mating to occur. Orchard layout is another consideration. For best results, trees should be evenly spaced and of equal heights since treeless spaces and taller trees interrupt the pheromone spread. Cold weather can cause too little pheromone release and hot weather can cause the pheromone to deplete too fast. Since the pheromones actually attract male moths, fruit damage can be worse if pheromone levels drop low enough to allow mating to occur.
Dispensers should be placed as high in the trees as possible, since mating can occur in the air above the dispensers. For pheromone dispensers to be effective, it is important to use them at the recommended rate per acre.
An aerosol dispenser, nicknamed the "puffer," which uses a timer to periodically spray pheromone into the orchard air, is an effective dispensing method. These puffers reduce the labor requirement of tying pheromone twist-ties on to orchard trees. Some of the puffers are allowable for use by the National Organic Program. For organic growers it will probably not be feasible to achieve adequate suppression using mating disruption alone. Growers in California have significantly improved codling moth control by combining mating disruption with black-light traps. Both male and female codling moths are strongly attracted to black light.
Prior to the development of the mating-disruption system, pheromones were used primarily for monitoring to determine the best timing for spray applications. Degree-day monitoring can also be used to this effect. Since insects are cold blooded, weather monitoring can forecast when an event, such as egg hatch, will occur. This information can be obtained by calculating degree days and can be used to implement control methods, such as pesticide applications or cultural manipulations, so that they are used at the most effective time in the pest’s life cycle.
There are several "windows" in the pest’s development that, if detected, can greatly increase the effectiveness of control measures. Determination of these critical periods is especially important, since codling moth eggs are fairly resistant to pesticide treatments, and once the eggs hatch, the larvae will quickly enter a fruit and be protected from sprays. While Bacillus thuringiensis has shown effectiveness with other moth pests, it is not as effective on codling moth, and additionally can be cost prohibitive. A granulosis virus, originally identified from codling moth, has been shown to be effective for control of early-stage codling moth larvae. This virus was developed for commercial use in Europe and has been used in the United States under the brand name Cyd-X. Degree-day monitoring is necessary to time the application of Cyd-X.
The trichogramma wasp is increasingly used in U.S. orchards as a biological control organism against codling moth. The wasps can be ordered from insectaries, which ship them as pupae inside parasitized grain moth eggs glued to perforated cards (100,000 trichogramma per card). Each card can be broken into 30 squares, allowing for even distribution in orchards and fields. Trichogramma parasitize freshly deposited moth eggs, so release of the adult wasps should be timed to coincide with moth egg-laying. Degree-day monitoring can help determine when egg laying is occurring. Trichogramma feed on insect eggs, nectar, pollen, and honeydew. They live much longer and destroy more codling moths when supplied with nectar. Good nectar and pollen sources in and around the orchard, such as borders or strips of unsprayed alfalfa, sorghum, sunflower, corn, clovers, and wildflowers, will increase Trichogramma parasitism of pest eggs. Beneficial organisms are not sufficient by themselves to affect a commercially acceptable level of control; rather, they play a potentially potent part in an overall long-range ecological management strategy. Best results are usually observed after three to five years of releases, as the population of beneficials grows.
Sanitation and cultural practices can help reduce codling moth populations. Woodpiles, boxes, and bins can be a major source of reinfestation, so these should be kept away from the orchard. If wooden crates or boxes are discovered to contain codling moth pupal cases, they can be disinfested by scorching with a propane torch.
In smaller orchards, codling moth larvae can also be intercepted as they descend the trunk to pupate in bark crevices, soil, and certain weed stems. Wrap the trunks with corrugated cardboard, which will provide an attractive artificial pupation site. In areas with only one generation of codling moth, remove and burn the cardboard at the end of the season. If there are two or more generations, the cardboard should be removed and destroyed about a month after the first larvae moved down to pupate. To determine the timing of this larval movement, use the degree-day method described above or employ a trap of a 6-inch-wide burlap strip painted with Tanglefoot and wrapped around the trunk just above the cardboard wraps.
To learn much more, consult the ATTRA publication Apples: Organic Production. This publication provides information on organic apple production from recent research and producer experience. Many aspects of apple production are the same whether the grower uses low-spray, organic, or conventional management. Accordingly, this publication focuses on the aspects that differ from nonorganic practices—primarily pest and disease control, marketing, and economics. This publication introduces the major apple insect pests and diseases and the most effective organic management methods. It also includes farmer profiles of working orchards and a section dealing with economic and marketing considerations. There is an extensive list of resources for information and supplies and an appendix on disease-resistant apple varieties.
Note: The mention of specific product brand names is for educational purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by NCAT, ATTRA, or USDA.
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Answer: The American Community Garden Association (communitygarden.org) has offered a 10-step outline for starting a community orchard. Retaining the 10 major headings, the following is an expansion of that outline:
1. The first step is to develop a plan, and the first order of business regarding the plan should be to determine the goals of the orchard, including whom the orchard will serve. In England, where the community orchard movement started, the first goal was saving local varieties in extant older orchards, which were threatened by age but even more by urban development. Other goals might include fruit production for the orchard workers as well as the general public, "private" fruit production on rented plots, fruit production for food banks and the needy, beautification (edible landscaping), and education for children, as well as adults, interested in learning how to grow fruit.
Once a general plan is decided upon, a leadership team should be named to chair the committees necessary to oversee the general plan–committees like fundraising, volunteer recruitment, site selection, legal, and, of course, planning.
The leadership team will establish priorities and among those should be choosing a name and logo for the orchard.
2. The second step is finding a site. In England, the sites are likely to be older orchards already established in the community on private land but threatened in some way and in need of preservation. In the United States, this is not usually the case, and a community orchard group will most likely be looking at public land to find a suitable site. However, depending on the resolve and resources of the group, it is possible to consider finding the best site regardless of whether it’s public or private, and purchasing or leasing the site if it’s on private land. Still, most groups will be looking at public land like parks, a botanical garden, or school grounds, all of which have the built-in advantage of having some public traffic (assuming that visibility is among the goals of the group). Sites that already have community gardens are natural candidates. The site search need not be limited, though, to schools and parks as there is often land in public ownership (city, county, state, federal) that has not been purposed and may not be readily recognizable as public. Check with local officials.
A good orchard site is sunny with well-drained soil and access to water. It should not be in a frost pocket (an area where cold air can settle), and south-facing slopes should be avoided because they tend to induce fruit trees to bloom too early, thus making their blossoms subject to frost damage.
Determine the history of a site to ascertain that there is little to no risk of contaminated soil from previous use (e.g., industrial site, waste dump).
3. Get a contract/lease. Most fruit trees don’t start bearing until they are three to four years old. Moreover, because initial investment in plants, fertilizer, and land preparation can be considerably more for an orchard than for a garden, a long-term agreement with the owner (be it public or private) is a necessity.
At this point, legal assistance would be advised. If the government entity you are working with doesn’t provide legal services, look for a civicminded lawyer willing to do pro bono work for your cause.
4. Get money and materials. In large part to make things easy for the people who want to give your group charitable donations of money and materials, consider forming a 501 (c)(3) nonprofit corporation.
Don’t limit your funding searches to just local sources; depending on your goals and focus, there are national groups that might be interested in donating.
Other focus areas might suggest appropriate donors. For instance, are you focusing on production for food pantries or other needy groups? Does your orchard have a strong educational component? Is historical preservation a main goal? Your goals should suggest to you individuals and groups who would be happy to donate to your community orchard. And don’t forget gardening groups, farm supply stores, landscapers, and nurseries; they are a very likely source of donated tools and plants.
A website or at least a Facebook site is practically mandatory today for any group doing public fundraising. A Facebook site with names and photos provides transparency to reassure potential donors that you are a legitimate and worthy organization. Likewise, media attention provides both promotion and legitimacy. Arrange to be interviewed by local news media and make sure they know about any events (e.g., groundbreaking, planting, a major donation, notice of a workshop at the orchard) that are coming up. The more familiar your name becomes, the easier it is to solicit donations.
5. Find helpers. Identify sources of volunteers, including master gardeners, garden club members, nursery operators, and Cooperative Extension personnel. Remember, perennial fruit culture is more complicated than regular gardening, so it would be advantageous to find experienced fruit growers. Public schools, 4-H, and FFA (Future Farmers of America) organizations should be notified. High school and college horticulture programs are another good place to look.
6. Design the orchard. In designing the orchard, the first consideration should be the project goals from Step 1. For example, if a primary goal is production for food banks, heirloom varieties or exotic species should give way to varieties proven to produce abundantly in your area.
Another primary consideration is choosing plants that do well in your climate and soil without the intervention of pesticides. First, plants have to be chosen that will actually survive the climate and soil types to which they will be exposed. After that, it is practically a given that any orchard open to the public will have to be managed without synthetic pesticides. It matters little what the experts say in this regard; the simple truth is that parents will not tolerate a situation in which they feel, rightly or wrongly, that their children may be exposed to the risks of pesticides.
Consequently, the most disease-resistant, pest-tolerant, climatically adapted plants must be chosen from the start for the pest/disease/climate complex of your region. It will do little good to plant a Bartlett pear in the eastern half of the United States only to have it destroyed by the ravages of fi re blight. Likewise, a muscadine grape with great disease resistance, but not cold hardy past USDA Climate Zone 7, will simply not survive the cold winters of New England.
Another important choice involves the size and scale of the orchard. This is tricky, of course, but the leadership team must try to gauge the level of support that will be necessary and available over the years. If there is any question about such support, remember it is best to start small and excel than to start big and fail. Successes will build community interest and support. Failures will imply that your group doesn’t know what it’s doing. It’s harder to correct mistakes in perennial plantings than in annual gardens; therefore, be humble, ask questions, and think small initially.
The physical characteristics of the site must be considered, and foremost among these for the purposes of fruit growing are shade and drainage (both air and water). Most, but not all, fruit plants will do best in full sun. This relates primarily to fruit bud initiation by the plants, but it also relates to disease management, as quick drying of plant surfaces inhibits growth and infection of many plant-pathogenic fungi and bacteria. But there are fruit trees, like pawpaws, that will thrive in the shade, though they will bear more fruit in full sun. Also, there are fruit species “out of their element,” like raspberries growing in the South, which will actually benefit from a half-day’s shade, especially if that shade moderates the southern and/or western exposures. Also, when laying out the orchard, consider the relative shadow cast from taller trees: in most cases the tallest trees should be planted on the northern border of the site because that will produce the least shade on the orchard site as a whole. Moving from North to South, the tallest trees come first, then plant the medium-height shrubs, next the berry bushes, and finally the ground-huggers (strawberries, lingonberries).
Regarding water and air drainage, as already discussed in Step 2, the whole site should have good air and water drainage, but fruit plant species exhibit varying tolerances to “wet feet.” Cherries, for instance, are notoriously intolerant of heavy or poorly drained soils. Pears and blackberries, on the other hand, are probably the most tolerant of wet conditions. If plants intolerant of wet soil need to be planted where drainage is questionable, consider raising the individual plant site by berming the soil.
Finally, consider adequate walkways, access for mowers, whether fencing is desirable, possible need for a storage shed, and the aesthetics of the whole planting, including the entrance with signage. You’ll probably want an attractive sign with the orchard group’s logo, but it might also be advantageous to have educational signage, as well as posted rules.
7. Prepare and plant the orchard. A good first step on-site is to post a sign to let people know that a community orchard will be established here. The sign could also function to solicit more volunteers.
Ideally, ground preparation starts well ahead of actual planting and includes activities such as performing a soil test, increasing organic matter (turning under a cover crop or incorporating compost or manure), dealing with existing vegetation (noxious weeds like bermudagrass can be serious, long-term problems, especially in berry plantings); adjusting soil pH with lime or sulfur; building trellises for grapes, raspberries, and espaliered fruit trees; and ditching and/or berming to deal with drainage. These types of things are difficult to do after planting long-lived trees and bushes, so try to anticipate future needs and obstacles.
Planting day should be a fun event. Make it so. It’s a chance to get some publicity, so notify the press ahead of time and post announcements on social media sites.
Make sure that the planters understand the basic rules of planting; you’ll probably want to have teams led by people with some expertise. You could also use this opportunity to have your first workshop, “How to plant fruit trees and berry plants correctly.” Make certain at the end of this day that plants are watered in and that someone is in charge of watering during the crucial establishment year.
8. Involve youth. Through public school biology classes, 4-H clubs, youth centers, church groups, and the like, a community orchard can engage kids. Youth will serve as positive ambassadors for the project because they’re going to tell others, including their parents. Making sure the neighborhood’s children are involved is just the right thing to do, but it can also help keep down vandalism.
9. Manage the orchard. As for what must get done for the sake of the plants, managing a community orchard is much the same as managing any orchard. The primary difference is managing who does the work. Volunteers will come and go, but the management of the orchard must have continuity.
10. Reassess the project. Any long-term project should undergo periodic reassessments. Build such reassessments into the initial charter.
You can learn much more on this topic in the ATTRA publication Community Orchards. This publication introduces community orchards and discusses the history of the community orchard movement and the motivations behind producing fruit in a community orchard. It offers advice on choosing fruit trees and plants most likely to provide successful harvests, including apples, pears, grapes, brambles, and other, unusual fruits. A profile of a community orchard program and a list of further resources are also included.
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Answer: The basic processing steps are as follows:
Preparation of the raw material often includes removing husks or seed coats from the seeds and separating the seeds from the chaff. There are a wide variety of small- to intermediate-scale approaches to and technologies for effective seed cleaning.
Seed preparation and conditioning
For successful pressing, the seed must be:
• Clean. Fine dust in the seed may clog the oil press hardware. Chaff left in the seed will absorb some of the oil and keep it from getting squeezed out of the expeller. Sand in the seed will wear out the press. Stones damage the oil press screw or piston.
• Dry. Moist seed leads to low yields and clogs the screw or cage, a part of the press. Moist seed may also get moldy, as mold spores are present in all crops. A rule of thumb is that the moisture content of the seed should be close to 10 percent.
The number varies considerably for specific oilseeds. For example, rapeseed should be dried to a 7-percent moisture content, camelina to about 6 percent and sunflower to 8.5 percent. Safflower needs only to be dried to 11 percent and soybean is safe for storage and processing at 12 percent. There are at least two methods of testing seed moisture levels. Hand-held moisture testers allow the user to simply place the seed in the tester, turn it on and select the type of seed to test. The tester provides an instant readout. These testers cost from $400 to $700. Here is a lower-tech, low-cost way of moisture testing: Weigh a sample of seed, and then heat the sample in an oven at 300 degrees Fahrenheit for one hour. Reweigh the sample. The weight lost in the oven is equal to the moisture content of the original sample. Calculate the percentage by dividing the weight lost by the original weight and multiplying the result by 100. Even dry seed can quickly get damp by being in contact with damp earth. Once the seed is dried and bagged, it must be carefully stored to keep it from absorbing moisture.
• Warm. Warm seed will yield the most oil for the least effort. The optimum heat range for oil extraction is from 100 to 160 degrees. There are several ways to preheat the seed in advance of extraction. For very small batches, heating the seed in an oven or double boiler works, as does concentrated sunlight in a solar food dryer or some other solar collector. For larger batches, a heating element in a hopper located between the seed storage facility and the oilseed press works well.
Extraction by cold pressing
Oil can be extracted mechanically with a ram press, an expeller or even a wooden mortar and pestle, a traditional method that originated in India. Presses range from small, hand-driven models that an individual can build to power-driven commercial presses. The ram press uses a piston inside a cage to crush the seed and force out the oil. Expellers have a rotating screw inside a horizontal cylinder that is capped at one end. The screw forces the seeds or nuts through the cylinder with gradually increasing pressure. The seed is heated by friction and electric heaters or a combination of the two. Once the cap is removed, the oil escapes from the cylinder through small holes or slots and the press cake, or meal, emerges from the end of the cylinder. Both the pressure and temperature can be adjusted for different kinds of feedstock.
Clarification removes contaminants such as fine pulp, water and resins. You can clarify oil by allowing it to sit undisturbed for a few days and then removing the upper layer. If the oil needs further clarification, filter the oil through a fine filter cloth. Finally, you can heat the oil to drive off traces of water and destroy any bacteria. Very clean oil is important in all uses, including biodiesel.
Degumming is the process of removing the phospholipids from the oil. Many people advise that you allow the resulting oil to settle out the gums, or hydratables, over a period of one to two weeks. However, you need more chemical processing to make high-quality culinary oil or biodiesel feedstock.
Refining, bleaching and deodorizing
The vegetable oil produced and processed to this point does not need refining, bleaching or deodorizing as long as the natural taste, smell and color are acceptable to the user. However, getting the oil to commercial food grade may be an important step in oilseed processing if your market demands it. For example, restaurants require oils that have a relatively high smoke temperature and may or may not want the taste of the natural oil.
Oil packaging and storage
Use clean, dry containers to package and store oils. Sealed glass or plastic bottles are adequate for small quantities. Colored containers in a dark box help increase shelf life. Steel or plastic tanks work well for large quantities. The shelf life of oil is usually six to 12 months if it is properly packaged and kept away from heat and sunlight. Keeping air away from oil is perhaps the most important step to prevent rancidity. Completely fill whatever size container you chose so there is no air space and then cap the container tightly. Shelf life of oil may vary depending on the type of oil as well as the storage conditions. For example, flax and grape seed have a shorter shelf life than canola or sunflower due to the large amount of polyunsaturates present. If the stored vegetable oil does not reach sustained temperatures of 100° F or more, its vital components will be preserved. Therefore, vegetable oil is excellently suited for natural nutrition. As long as the oil is stored in a dark, cool place, it will have a long shelf life.
To learn more, consult the ATTRA publication Oilseed Processing for Small-Scale Producers. This publication describes the basic processes involved in oil processing and includes sources for more information and equipment.
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Answer: Generally speaking, biochar is the product of turning biomass into gas or oil with the intention of adding it to crop and forest production systems as a soil amendment. The definition of biochar is more about its creation and intended application rather than what it is composed of. Both charcoal and biochar are produced through an energy conversion process called pyrolysis, which is essentially the heating of biomass in the complete or near absence of oxygen.
Pyrolysis of biomass produces char, oils, and gases. The amount of these materials produced depends on processing conditions. What makes biochar different from charcoal is that the biochar product is created for use as a soil amendment. Biochar can be produced from a variety of biomass feedstocks, but is generally designated as biochar only if it produces a useable co-product for soil improvement. The oils and gases from pyrolysis can be used for energy production. The biochar and energy created can provide a carbon-negative energy source and a useable co-product for soil improvement. However, not all biochars are created equal. The efficiency and effectiveness of the process of its creation and use can vary and the specific biomass sources used can affect the characterization and usability of the biochar.
Complex ongoing research is striving for a more uniform and standard biochar that will limit potential environmental problems associated with biochar production and application to soils. Creating a standardization of biochars may make it possible for people who buy biochar to depend on uniform attributes. Issues such as what should be the ideal moisture and ash content of standard biochar are relatively easy to measure and standardize, but tests for metals and alkalinity are not. Some of the attributes that might be expected from biochars can go beyond just physical characteristics to issues of whether the feedstock used in its creation was from a renewable feedstock, whether its production reduced greenhouse gas emissions and whether the biochar can improve soil quality in a reliable way.
From a practical perspective, biochar can benefit farmers and ranchers because it serves as a soil amendment that can enhance fertility and reduce the need for more costly fertilizers. It also helps retain moisture in the soil, and it may have the potential to significantly mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and slow climate change.
You can learn much more about this topic in the ATTRA publication Biochar and Sustainable Agriculture. This publication reviews the current research and issues surrounding the production and use of this emerging biomass energy technology and explore how biochar can contribute to sustainable agriculture.
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Answer: Rabbits eat only plants and are classified as non-ruminant herbivores. They recycle feed by re-ingesting the cecotropes. Cecotropes are small particles of digested food that collect in the cecum (hindgut), which the rabbit excretes once a day and then consumes. Cecatropes are sometimes called "night feces" and look softer than the round, hard pellets usually seen. Rabbits require high-fiber diets, which are bulky and low in density, unlike poultry or swine. While purchasing commercial feed is common in commercial operations, there is an increasing amount of research being conducted on forage-based rabbits and other self-sustaining means of feeding the herd.
Rabbits are usually fed a commercial pelleted diet that is balanced in the necessary nutrients (protein, energy, vitamins, and minerals). These diets contain alfalfa, grain (barley, wheat mill byproducts), protein supplements (soybean meal), vitamins, and mineral supplements.
With a small operation, it may be economical to reduce the amount of pellets by feeding rabbits available greens. Greens and succulents include fresh legumes (alfalfa, clover), grasses, vegetables (lettuce, celery), roots and tubers (carrots, potatoes), weeds (dandelions), and comfrey. Clean table scraps that fit into these categories are also acceptable. If greens complement a pelleted diet, the amount of pellets can be reduced by 50% without lowering rabbit production. However, since fresh greens are about 80% to 90% water, it is difficult to raise rabbits solely on these materials because they are not nutrient-dense. Over-feeding of fresh greens may also cause indigestion.
Rabbits can be pastured in outdoor pens placed on the ground, which allows them to harvest their own fresh forage. Fryers can be kept in outdoor pens with wooden slats or chicken wire on the floor to prevent the rabbits from digging out of the pen. Pens are moved daily to fresh pasture, and the rabbits are provided with concentrate feed. Ideally, rabbits won’t graze the same area of pasture again for at least six months to prevent the spread of coccidiosis.
There are many different production models for raising rabbits on pasture. Some producers choose for rabbits to be born and raised to weaning indoors. The weaned rabbits are then moved to portable cages on pasture. Rabbits raised on pasture may take longer to reach slaughter weight.
Rabbits that have been bred for commercial confinement production may not perform well on pasture. You may have to spend time experimenting with breeds and breeding to find the type of animal that best fits your production system. As with any livestock, you should purchase breeding stock that has been raised in a similar manner to your production system. So if you are raising rabbits on pasture, it is in your best interest to buy stock from another pasture producer instead of stock that has been raised indoors and fed only a commercial feed ration.
Growing local feed for rabbits is also an option. Research has been conducted on using water spinach, sweet potato, cassava foliage, mulberry leaves, and other plants and found that such crops can replace or be combined with conventional feed ingredients. Another study claims that growing sweet potato forage along with a small amount of cereal grain for an energy supplement can be a self-sustaining program for a small farm.
Instead of a commercial pelleted diet, producers can mix their own feedstuffs, especially if they grow or purchase their own feed ingredients. Before commercial pellets were available, people often raised rabbits on a diet of alfalfa hay and white oats. This is an acceptable diet if salt licks are also provided.
A legume hay such as alfalfa or clover provides high protein and fiber and can be included at a level of about 50% to 60% of the total diet. A concentrate for energy (grains such as oats or barley) is needed at a level of about 20% to 30%. The grain should be rolled or ground to facilitate digestion. Feeding too much grain can cause a carbohydrate overload in the hindgut and the animal may die from enteritis (diarrhea). Grain by-products that are high in fiber, such as wheat bran or wheat mill run, are also good options.
Adding hay to increase fiber and decrease the amount of grain fed will also reduce enteritis. A small amount of protein concentrate such as soybean meal or sunflower meal at about 10% of the diet ensures adequate protein. Rabbit diets need to have about 16% to 17% crude protein, as well as mineral supplements or salt spools.
The grain and hay ingredients mentioned above are relatively dry (only about 10% moisture). Rabbits do not relish eating a powder-dry mixture. If the mixture is moistened with feed-grade molasses, it will be more palatable to the animals. If the alfalfa or other forage is in hay form, it can be offered separately.
More feed waste can occur with non-pelleted rations than with pelleted rations. The rabbits may feed selectively, and the cage bottom and ground below can become littered with hay. Keep this in mind when considering the cost-effectiveness of feeding home-mixed rations rather than commercial pellets. It may be possible to have a feed mill custom mix a pellet ration.
Having a balanced ration ensures that diets contain the proper amount of nutrients for rabbits during different stages of growth or reproduction.
To learn much more about raising rabbits, consult the ATTRA publication Small-Scale Sustainable Rabbit Production.