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Home  > Question of the Week

Question of the Week



Permalink How can I address cedar rust disease in my apple trees?

Answer: The fungus that causes this disease moves back and forth between eastern red cedars (actually junipers, not true cedars) and apples, so it can be a major problem where eastern red cedars are endemic. In order to complete its life cycle, this fungus must spend part of its life on eastern red cedar; therefore, it is theoretically possible to eliminate the disease by eliminating the cedars within a given area. However, the spores can be windborne for over one mile, so eradication of the disease in this manner is often impossible or impractical.

Nonetheless, if cedars are not too numerous on a given site, their removal around the immediate orchard vicinity can certainly reduce the inoculum reaching the apple foliage. In addition, there are many rust-resistant apple varieties. Only a few varieties, most notably Golden Delicious and its progeny, are susceptible to the point of defoliation.

Many fungicides are effective against rust, including the sulfur-and-copper compounds, which are approved for organic production as a last resort in your organic pest-management plan. If you remain observant, you may be able to time sprays to coincide with the springtime appearance of orange gelatinous "horns" on the galls on the cedar. This bizarre-looking structure is actually the fruiting stage of the fungus. The "horns" release the spores that infect the apple trees.

To learn more, consult the following ATTRA publications:

Apples: Organic Production
Tree Fruits: Organic Production Overview

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Permalink How can I control Bermudagrass organically in my apple orchard?

Answer: Bermudagrass is one of the hardest grasses to control organically. The best thing I've read about organic control of Bermudagrass is based around an intense, one-year, series of smother crops strategy worked out by George Kuepper at the Kerr Center for Sustainable Agriculture in Poteau, Oklahoma. For the details, visit http://kerrcenter.com/publication/converted-bermuda-pasture-organic-vegetables/.

Unfortunately, this effective strategy would only work for annual vegetable crops or as a pre-plant technique for your apple orchard. Even if your trees are already planted, I recommend that you peruse this publication because it explains a lot about Bermuda's strengths and weaknesses.

I'm a Certified Naturally Grown (same rules as organic) orchardist myself, working at a similar scale as you. My basic Bermudagrass strategy after planting is to establish a thick wood chip mulch (which, by itself, does very little to control Bermuda except to make it easier to pull--if you have the time and energy) and keep knocking it back with an organically approved herbicide in conjunction with pulling up the rhizomes. I've tried flame weeding, vinegar-based herbicides, citric acid-based products, and a soap-based product. Of those, flame weeding was probably the cheapest, but not very effective and carrying around the gas tank was cumbersome. The vinegar herbicide was very ineffective. The citric acid herbicide was slightly better than the vinegar but was very expensive.

I've settled on Scythe™, which is OMRI approved and is essentially pelargonic acid from soaps. It's not cheap, but it's cheaper than the vinegar and citric acid herbicides and it does knock back the Bermuda temporarily. The Bermuda will always come roaring back, but persistent sprayings and pulling out rhizomes when you have the time and labor will help you get through the time when the trees are young and especially susceptible to competition from the Bermuda. As the trees get older, the shade inhibits the Bermuda grass slightly and the trees are better able to deal with the competition.

Remember, since there is no such thing as an organic systemic herbicide (like Roundup), all these herbicides, including flame weeding, are "contact" herbicides and will only affect the leaf surfaces that they touch (or almost touch, in the case of flame weeding). Consequently, the strategy is to force the roots to keep sending up new growth and eventually exhaust the reserves in the roots. So keep the Bermuda short with mowing or weed-eating and then apply the herbicides. This mowing first will save you money because if you let the Bermuda get too thick, the blades on top will shield those below from the herbicide. I actually use an old-fashioned scythe to accomplish the mowing. If you keep it sharp, it's an amazingly efficient tool. But a weed-eater will accomplish the same thing. Then I come behind where I've mown and spray what's left with the Scythe™ herbicide.
When I plant new orchards on a site with Bermuda present, I try to follow the series of smother crops strategy referred to above from the Kerr Center and then establish common fescue as the orchard floor cover. Fescue is easier to control organically, as it can out-compete Bermuda

For more information, consult the ATTRA publication Tree Fruits: Organic Production Overview (https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=2). This guide is an overview of issues relevant to commercial organic production of temperate zone tree fruits and, to a lesser extent, tree nuts. It includes discussions of marketing and economics, orchard design, and cultural considerations, including crop varieties, site selection, site preparation, soil fertility, weed control, and pest management (insects, diseases, and vertebrates). It raises questions for the grower to consider in making decisions about orchard and enterprise design. Lists of electronic and print resources offer further, more detailed information.

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Permalink What types of leasing or ownership arrangements exist for prospective new farmers?

Answer: Renting farmland is a common practice in U.S. agriculture, where more than 45 percent of the 917 million farmland acres are rented. According to the Agricultural Economics and Land Ownership Survey, 60 percent of farmland rent is paid in cash, 24 percent in shares of production, and 11 percent in a cash/share combination. Following are short descriptions of the various leasing and ownership options.

Cash Lease
Most cash leases are short-term, requiring little commitment from either landowner or tenant farmer. Long-term leases can be an affordable way for farmers to use more sustainable practices and to invest more in their businesses. Many leases are based on a handshake. Verbal agreements are considered legal leases for one year, but this is not recommended for either party, as conflicts can arise even among friends when terms are not clearly stated on outset. A written lease provides benefits and security for both parties.

Crop Share
In this model, rent payment consists of part of the crop, most often paid as part of the income from total crop sold. Also known as "share-crop" and "share lease," this was historically disadvantageous to tenant farmers, but can work well for beginning farmers without start-up capital. Crop-share arrangements are common in perennial crops and some commodities, for example fruit and nut operations, hay, field crops, processing tomatoes. Agreements may have maximum and minimum limits to protect the farmer and landowner, respectively.

Long-Term Lease
This model is as close to ownership as a lease can get. The term is usually 40 to 99 years depending on state law. This is longer than the average mortgage. These types of leases may even be inheritable. They are used for publicly owned land and commercial real estate, but are less common in agriculture. They are sometimes used by cities and land trusts who own the land but wish to guarantee farmers lifetime tenure. Because of their longevity, the intent and clauses of leases must be very carefully drafted so they will last as long as the lease term.

Lease with Option to Buy or Right of First Refusal
There are two ways a lease can improve ownership opportunities for a tenant farmer:

• With a "Purchase Option," the owner and tenant pre-determine the purchase price, with a date for execution of the purchase. The tenant pays for this option up front, and the rent money can count toward an initial down payment.
• With a "Right of First Refusal" clause, the owner can only sell the land to a third party after the tenant has had a chance to "refuse," by matching that third-party offer and making the purchase first. This helps ensure that an owner doesn’t sell the land "out from under" the tenant, but the tenant must be ready to act quickly.

Fee Title Purchase with Seller Financing
In this model the new buyer takes possession of the land and makes payments directly to the seller, as written in a "note." This works very well when a good relationship has been established. The landowner can see the property transferred to a promising new farmer, and the new farmer can secure that note—sometimes by virtue of his or her "character" more than conventional lending requirements. Even better, brokerage fees are avoided by both parties. Payments can be structured like a typical mortgage, or in the case of an installment or land contract sale, made periodically. This strategy is often a good way to transfer land to the next generation within a family.

Fee Title Purchase with Agricultural Conservation Easement
An agricultural conservation easement forever extinguishes development rights on that land, making it less valuable to nonfarmers. These types of easements are used if a landowner wishes to see the land remain available for agriculture: He or she donates or sells the land’s development rights in the form of an agricultural conservation easement to a nonprofit land trust or government agency, which ensures that the easement goals are upheld forever. This can drop the after-easement value, or "easement encumbered value," of the land into an affordable price range for a new farmer.

To learn more, refer to the ATTRA publication Finding Land to Farm: Six Ways to Secure Farmland, available at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=174.

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Permalink What is a food hub?

Answer: Interest in local and regional food systems is increasing as their health benefits and contributions to economic, environmental, and social sustainability are recognized. Statistics from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) show growth in local food sales from about $4.8 billion in 2008 to $7 billion in 2011. Traditional commodity markets continue to make up the vast majority of food distribution systems. They are structured around larger-scale mechanized production.

However, new business and marketing opportunities for producers, many of whom are small and mid-size farms and ranches, are being created to enhance direct-to-consumer market outlets. Food hubs are playing a valuable role in local and regional food systems by providing small and mid-size farms and ranches with access to more mainstream and larger-volume markets through distribution support and other services.

The more than 200 food hubs currently in operation in the United States are helping to remove economic and infrastructural barriers in order to facilitate the supply of local food to larger markets. Supply chains traditionally move food from the farm to a packing and shipping facility or processor and then to a wholesale distributor. While this model once supported local businesses such as canneries, mills, grain elevators, and independently owned grocery stores, today's system focuses on economies of scale, i.e., increases in efficiencies to produce larger volumes of product allow for a decrease in consumer price. As a result, smaller producers face challenges, such as in distribution and processing, which limit their ability to supply larger markets, including institutions, restaurants, retail stores, and other commercial markets.

Food hubs operate in many forms but all serve to facilitate the sale of fresh and local food from producers to consumer markets.

The demand for local food in larger-scale markets has exposed production, economic, and logistical challenges standing between local food buyers and smaller-scale producers. Small farms having less than $250,000 in annual gross sales make up 91% of all farms in the United States. And while small farms provide over half of direct–to-consumer sales, through such outlets as farmers markets, on-farm sales, and community supported agriculture (CSA) programs, many smaller-scale producers have limited marketing opportunities. This is particularly true for mid-size producers who have annual gross sales between $50,000 and $250,000, as they frequently find themselves too large to rely solely on direct-to-consumer sales, yet too small to compete on price in larger-scale commodity markets.

The USDA currently defines a regional food hub as "a business or organization that actively manages the aggregation, distribution, and marketing of source-identified food products primarily from local and regional producers to strengthen their ability to satisfy wholesale, retail, and institutional demand." This working definition focuses on increasing small and mid-size producer access to wholesale market outlets through aggregation and distribution. Other definitions focus on economic, environmental, and social values as they relate to the mission and services a food hub provides. These can include health and social services, community development, and education. For this reason, food hubs are sometimes referred to as "values-based supply chains." Food hubs also are defined by their functions, such as selling to businesses or institutions, consumers, or both.

To learn more about this topic, consult the ATTRA publication Food Hubs: A Producer Guide, available at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=450. This publication provides information on food hubs, followed by an overview of considerations and production-oriented topics important in working with a food hub. Although many food hubs also work with meats, dairy, grains, and other products, much of this publication focuses on the food hub mainstays of fresh fruits and vegetables. Case studies and a list of further resources are included.

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Permalink What can you tell me about sheep foot rot?

Answer: Foot problems are often hard to diagnose, and sometimes they are very easy to misdiagnose. In sheep, the most common and definitely the most feared type of foot rot is sheep foot rot. This is different than cattle foot rot. Its main diagnostic feature is limping, and when you pick up the foot, it has a very putrefying smell. You cannot mistake the bad smell. Sheep footrot is extremely contagious. Consulting with your veterinarian is highly advised.

In general, foot rot problems generally show up under wet, muddy, and cold conditions. Foot rot problems are also associated with inadequate levels of zinc in the ration. Since you are using a cafeteria-style mineral feeder, it would be probably good to check that the zinc bin is always full. I would also have your soil tested for molybdenum. High levels of molybdenum limit the bio-availability of Cu, ZN, and Co, all of which are involved in the immune system. With that said, problems caused by inadequate minerals and vitamins require a period of inadequacy; it does not just happen in one day or even a week.

Oftentimes, producers use Kopertox for treating minor, noncontagious forms of foot rot and also as a liquid "bandage" for skin abrasions. As food animal husbandmen, we need to be more aware of drugs that are not labeled for animals intended for human consumption. Kopertox is one of these drugs. As such, it can only be used in equine and companion animal applications.

An alternative is a foot bath of zinc sulfate, which is not very convenient, as the sheep have to stand in it for a good amount of time.

For more information, consult the following resources. And, again, consulting with your veterinarian is highly advised.

Eliminating the effects of foot rot on sheep flocks in the Northeast
http://umaine.edu/sheep/report/

Footrot in Sheep and Goats
https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/As/As-596-footrot.pdf

Guide to Footrot in Sheep
http://www.farmfoodcare.org/pdfs/animal-resources/sheep-foot-rot-june-2010.pdf

Sheep 201: A Beginner's Guide to Raising Sheep
http://www.sheep101.info/201/hoofcare.html

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Permalink Can I grow organic cherries in the western United States?

Answer: Commercial organic cherry production presents many challenges. The cherry fruit fly, bacterial canker, phytophthora root rot, leaf spot, fruit cracking, late frosts, and brown rot of the blossom and fruit are all serious obstacles to the orchardist hoping to make a profit with cherries, particularly for the organic grower. Yet, despite these and other hurdles, organic cherry production is a profitable option for U.S. growers in much of the Northwest, and in the East, light can be seen at the end of the tunnel.

As with most other tree fruits, the climate in the western United States is more amenable to production of organic cherries than is the more humid climate of the East. The problems mentioned above are present both East and West, but the higher rainfall and humidity in the East tend to magnify those problems. In fact, fruit cracking from rain—purely a physiological problem and not a disease in itself—plagues all eastern growers, organic or otherwise, and greatly favors commercial sweet cherry production in the West, where most production relies on controlled irrigation, not rainfall. There is some commercial sweet cherry production in the Northeast, but its scale is dwarfed by the production of the West. Additionally, northeastern growers have relatively few cultivars to choose from due to the propensity of cultivars like Bing to crack in the rain.

In contrast, because tart cherries are not as susceptible to fruit cracking or brown rot as are sweets, they can be grown profitably in areas outside the arid West. In fact, tart cherry production is centered around the Great Lakes states, with Michigan being the biggest producer. Another climatic consideration is the chilling requirement. Cherries require a winter chilling period in order to break dormancy successfully and bloom. For most sweet cherries, the chilling requirement is more than 1,000 hours; for tart cherries the requirement is roughly 800 hours. This is one of several reasons why cherry production is not practical in warm, southern climates. There are a few cultivars with low chilling requirements, but they are not the important commercial cultivars. These low-chill cultivars can be problematic in areas with fluctuating wintertime temperatures, like the mid-South, where they quickly meet their chilling requirements and begin to bloom any time the weather is warm for a week or more, only to have the blossoms nipped by the inevitable return to cold.

To learn more, consult the ATTRA publication Cherries: Organic Production, available at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=460.This publication focuses on organic pest and disease control and other topics relevant to organic production of both tart and sweet cherries. It introduces the Canadian bush cherry and discusses climatic considerations for cherry production. Information on marketing is included, as are further resources and sources of trees and pest-control materials.

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Permalink How can I get rid of the cheat grass that has invaded the bare spots in my pastures?

Answer: Cheat grass is an annual and it spreads by seeding. Grazing animals will eat it in the vegetative state, but they generally avoid it when it heads out. Thus, you can graze it out by grazing it in the vegetative phase of its growth. This is usually very early in the spring.

You can also arrest its invasion of bare spots in your pastures by hand seeding some grass and clovers in those bare spots. When you are in a drought, clovers and alfalfa are nice to have in your pasture because they have deeper roots than grass, enabling them to withstand dry conditions and keep the cheat grass from invading.

Another nice legume is Sanfoin. You can get the seed online. It is non-bloating, which is a tremendous quality. It is also drought hardy. I recommend that you give it a try.

If you are interested, you can find more about how to manage an irrigated pasture by viewing the ATTRA video, "Intensive Grazing: One Farm's Setup." It is available at: www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLDu0ElBiEy9w4vhL87vWjzCtyazcvPYGx. Perhaps you will find some good tips for your operation in it.

You can find lots more information on topics related to pasture in ATTRA's Livestock and Pasture section at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/livestock/.

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Permalink How can I decide whether producing organic small grains is right for me?

Answer: While the opportunity for producing organic grains is significant, organic production is not without its challenges. Weed management, soil fertility, soil moisture, tillage, rotation design, and marketing present a unique set of obstacles for organic grain farmers. There are several reasons to consider producing organic small grains, and several reasons why it might not be right for you.

Reasons to consider organic grain production:

1. A farmer must innovate and experiment on his own farm. This can be a rewarding challenge.
2. Organic production means less pesticide exposure for the farmer and his family.
3. Organic production requires increased crop diversity, which spreads out the income source and helps break pest cycles.
4. With careful management, organic production can improve the health of the soil. With increased organic matter, there is increased nutrient availability, less soil crusting, and better water infiltration.
5. Not purchasing synthetic fertilizer and herbicide means less expense per acre and less potential need for an annual operating loan. Per-acre returns can be the same or better than conventional farming.
6. Cash crop yields can compare to 90 to 100% of conventional tillage system yields once the rotation is established.
7. Demand for organic grains is strong. Prices paid to organic producers are historically greater than those paid to conventional producers.
8. NRCS-EQIP funds may be available to help offset costs of conversion, such as seed costs for cover crops.
9. Programs may be available through state departments of agriculture to offset the costs of organic certification.
10. There is a strong support network in the organic community, offering advice, training, and resource materials. Linking with other farmers in the region is critical for success.

Reasons to think twice about organic grain production:
1. A farmer must innovate and experiment on his own farm. This can be a significant source of frustration.
2. Nutrient management is not as prescriptive as in conventional grain production. While nitrogen can be gained through green manure legumes, the nitrogen produced from these crops varies widely with the weather and precipitation.
3. Most large grain farms do not have easy access to large amounts of animal manure, which can be a key component to building soil fertility.
4. The first three to five years of organic production are the most difficult, as the system adjusts to new management. In addition, no organic price premiums are available during the three-year transition phase.
5. Without other organic farmers to talk to, it can be difficult to know what steps to take. Having other organic farmers in the area increases the chances of success.
6. Tillage is generally the most significant method of weed control in an organic system.
But tillage can defeat the purpose of building soil organic matter and can increase soil erosion.
7. Currently, a system of continuous, no-till organic production has not been perfected for grains. A diverse no-till system can improve soil structure, increase organic matter, and decrease soil erosion better than the current tillage-dependent system of organic production.
8. Organic recordkeeping adds to the paperwork required to run the farm business.
9. A cash grain crop cannot be produced on each field every year.
10. Finding a buyer may be difficult for farmers who live in areas where grain has not traditionally been produced.

You can learn much more about organic grain productions in the following ATTRA publications:

Organic Small Grain Production Overview
https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=385

Disease and Insect Management in Organic Small Grains
https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=363

Nutrient Management in Organic Small Grains
https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=384

Weed Management in Organic Small Grains
https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=379

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Permalink How do I know if I'm ready to scale up production on my farm?

Answer: Local foods purchasing has moved beyond farmers markets to mainstream grocery stores. As consumers become more interested in purchasing local foods, chain grocery stores from Walmart to Safeway tout their support of local farmers. At the same time, many established farmers want to move out of time-consuming farmers markets into wholesale markets. A University of Wisconsin study points out that with the interest in local foods, "local food systems have the potential to borrow some of the economic and logistical efficiencies of the industrial food system while retaining social and environmental priorities" (Day-Farnsworth et al., 2009).

It is important to plan for the expansion of your farm. Every time you increase the scale of your operation, you will experience growing pains. Planning for improvements and growth within your operation can help alleviate these. Questions you might ask when you consider increasing your production:

• Do you have the ability to move more product through your washing and packing facility?
• Do you have enough space in your cooler, delivery truck, etc.?
• How many more people will you have to hire, and do you have the management skills to handle a larger crew?
• Do you have a good farm administration system? As your farm increases in size, this will likely become more complex, including more taxes and stricter insurance requirements

Scaling up can mean many things to a farm. It can mean simply producing more because your market demand is greater. Or it can mean expanding production capacity and business to produce for wholesale markets or significantly expanding your farm to meet direct-market demands. It is important to keep in mind that there is not a one-size-fits-all approach to expanding your farm.

For more detailed information, consult the ATTRA publication Scaling Up Your Vegetable Farm for Regional Markets. This publication addresses the planning considerations and provides some resources and worksheets to determine whether or not your operation is ready to scale up. It is available at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=469.

In addition, ATTRA has produced a new online tutorial, titled Scaling Up for Regional Markets, which provides lessons and information for farmers who have success in smaller and more direct marketing channels and who are interested in expanding their operations to meet a growing demand for local food. It is available at https://attra.ncat.org/tutorials/scalingup/index.php.

Reference:
Day-Farnsworth, Lindsey et al. 2009. Scaling Up: Meeting the Demand for Local Food. Center for Integrated Agricultural Systems, Madison, WI. www.cias.wisc.edu/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/baldwin_web_final.pdf

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Permalink What can you tell me about choosing breeds for pastured poultry production?

Answer: For pastured laying hens, as for any animal-agriculture enterprise, a source of quality livestock is absolutely necessary. Different poultry breeds have different characteristics that a producer must take into account when choosing a breed for an operation. Egg-laying breeds used on pasture need to be able to keep laying a steady supply of eggs while being efficient foragers. The first step to starting a productive flock is to determine which breed will be the best fit for a farm and its climatic region. USDA's National Organic Program (NOP) organic regulations require "selection of species and types of livestock with regard to suitability for site-specific conditions and resistance to prevalent diseases and parasites."

Egg-laying breeds differ from meat-production breeds in a few main respects. The first is the way they grow. Layers grow at a much slower rate and will reach a lower final weight than meat-type birds. However, once laying age is reached, most energy derived from feed is used to produce eggs, so feed is utilized at a much more efficient rate. Layer rations have a lower protein content than meat bird rations. Not all layers can produce eggs at the same rate, though. Breeds differ in feed efficiency (a certain weight of feed needed in order to produce a certain weight of eggs), egg color, foraging ability, and overall behavior. Very good egg layers, meaning those breeds which can lay more than 250 eggs per year, include Leghorns; Bovans Browns; Rhode Island Reds; and Gold, Black, and Red Stars.

Egg Color
The shell color of the egg is s linked to the breed of chicken. Differences in shell coloration do not denote a difference in nutrition or quality of the internal contents, meaning the yolk and albumen (the white of the egg). Feed and general nutrition will help determine the contents of the egg itself. The most common eggshell colors are white and brown in a variety of shades, but a few breeds are known to lay blue or green eggs.

Sex Link
"Sex link" refers to poultry that have been crossbred to produce traits that are linked to their sex chromosomes. This makes it easier for hatcheries to sort chicks by gender, based on the color of their feathers at hatch. Breeds in this category are usually very good layers and are preferred by many growers. However, sex-link birds are hybrids, meaning they are bred through the cross of two different breeds. As a result, they will not be able to be used in a breeding flock to produce another generation. An upside for producers looking to start out is that with sex links you can order a set of chicks that will have a much higher probability of being hens. Otherwise, "straight-run" is standard, meaning that there will be a mix of hens and cockerels that will only develop characteristics after they have been raised to maturity. Examples of sex links include Brown Stars, Red Stars, Red Comets, and Black Stars.

Weather Adaptability
Climate is a large deciding factor when choosing a breed to start a flock. All chickens originated from the Red Jungle Fowl, Gallus gallus, which was found in the forests of South-Pacific Asia. Ancestral members of the Gallus family (to which all chickens belong) survive best in warm climates. However, there are newer breeds more suited to a bit of cold. Heavier-bodied birds with more feathers usually survive better in areas that receive cold weather. On the other hand, smaller-bodied chickens tend to do better in climates where it can be hot for weeks at a time. Think of it as wearing a heavy coat: you would much rather wear a coat in snow than you would in a heat wave.

Another factor to consider relative to climate is comb shape and size. Breeds such as the leghorn have large combs, which are useful for heat dissipation in warm climates but make them more susceptible to frostbite in cold climates. If a flock will be on pasture during the winter in a colder climate, producers should look for a breed with a smaller comb (such as a "pea comb").

Foraging Ability
A distinguishing factor in raising pastured poultry is that the birds will be foraging through the day. This can relieve feed costs slightly, given the right combination of genetics and pasture quality. Although a producer can realistically expect a 5% to 20% contribution to total nutrition from pasture, genetics will play a role in exactly how much nutrition a bird can get from forages. Some breeds prefer to look for their own feed when they need it and will go to great lengths to find supplemental nutrition; others prefer to wait and be fed concentrated rations to satisfy the entirety of their nutritional needs. Examples of breeds that exhibit superior foraging abilities include Leghorn, American Gamefowl, New Hampshire, Barred Rocks, and Dominiques.

Dual Purpose
Breeds that can produce both meat and eggs are referred to as "dual-purpose" breeds. While this concept might seem attractive to a grower, these birds are usually not as efficient in either category of production as some of the top breeds. However, in some cases the flexibility of a dual-purpose breed can be of value to producers who don’t have room for separate flocks. Notable dual-purpose breeds include Orpingtons, Australorps, and Plymouth Rocks.

You can learn much more in the ATTRA publication Pastured Poultry: Egg Production. This publication examines many of the risk factors that beginning poultry farmers should consider before acquiring a pastured laying flock. It addresses animal-management issues including breed selection, housing, nutrition, predator control, and natural-resource management. It also discusses processing and marketing of the end product, table eggs. It is available at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=498.

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Permalink What can you tell me about direct marketing specialty melons?

Answer: For the direct-market producer, shipping melons is probably not a good bet, as per-unit costs of production make them uncompetitive in price in small quantities. This condition, of course, is shared by producers of all stripe. It's hard for a farmer with a few acres, for example, to compete in price with someone who grows produce by the mile.

To compensate for this, direct-market producers must rely on market strategy to increase competitiveness. Specialty melons offer an avenue to compete on the turf of large-scale melon producers. If you look in any major seed-supply catalogue, you will see an assortment of melons. Naturally, the major varieties are offered—and are perfectly suited for the hobbyist wishing to grow his or her own cantaloupes or honeydews to be plucked vine-ripe from the garden, at the epitome of taste, as opposed to shipped not fully ripe days or weeks beforehand. However, to be competitive in the market, growers should seek out niches to serve. Niche markets can be accessed through a variety of means, such as farmers markets, ethnic and conventional markets, roadside sales, and Community Supported Agriculture (CSA).

Farmers markets have been steadily gaining in popularity. The USDA Agricultural Marketing Service reports that there was a 3.6% rise in the number of farmers markets from 2012 to 2014. This number is expected to continue to rise as more people start to value the benefits of local food. Farmers markets allow producers to meet with local people and build relationships with their consumers, an option not afforded in other venues.

Ethnic groceries help both recent immigrants and farmers. Many immigrants find themselves separated from the foods of their homelands. This demand becomes an opportunity for local farmers to market the vegetables, fruits, and herbs that are adaptable to their region to newcomers. It may be difficult for a local producer to sell produce directly to the people who would most benefit from it; thus, a middleman of the same culture becomes prudent. Ethnic grocery stores then become an outlet for farmers to reach audiences they didn’t have access to before. It can be particularly advantageous for farmers to time their harvests for a specific event of their target audience.

Some conventional grocery stores will purchase produce directly from producers.This gives the farmer a dedicated buyer for his or her crop and allows the store to brand itself as supportive of the local food movement.This option tends to be less attractive to farmers, as the other options usually are more profitable and less troublesome with regard to the amount of paperwork required of the farmer.

Roadside sales are another direct-marketing stratagem for producers. Farmers markets tend to have an array of many types of vendors, whereas roadside stands are a stand-alone operation.These tend to attract fewer customers, with the customers spaced over a longer period of time. These stands tend to be seasonal in nature, according to the harvest. Many factors play a part in the success of roadside stands. For example, a farm stand between Hempstead and Brenham, Texas, in the spring when the bluebonnets are flowering would have many customers who were interested in stopping on that stretch of road anyway. Differentiate that from travelers heading from Houston to Galveston, Texas, who have no intention of stopping for any reason.

Other marketing options are available to specialty melon growers. CSAs are still developing and evolving. The original concept was for the subscriber to pay at the beginning of the sea-son for a share of the produce a particular farm produced throughout that season. This model is adapting due to market forces and competition. Nevertheless, it is still an option for producers to supply their customers with high-quality produce. Home-delivery services have also arisen in the past few years as a viable outlet for producers to sell their products.

To learn more, consult the ATTRA publication Specialty Melon Production for Small and Direct-Market Growers, available at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=492. This publication provides an overview of production and marketing of numerous different species and varieties of specialty melons. It addresses production considerations including seed sources, planting needs, soil preparation, and insect pest and disease control. It also discusses marketing outlets for producers to sell their melons and summarizes results of current melon research. A resource list details sources for more information, seeds, and supplies useful for melon growing.

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Permalink Can I control goat parasites with sericea lespedeza in Washington State?

Answer: While Sericea lespedeza is not listed as a noxious weed for Washington, the state Noxious Weed Control Board does not encourage its propagation. For specific information, contact Alison Hapern directly at 360-902-2053 or ahalpern@agr.wa.gov.

However, there are other ways that you can control goat parasites. For starters, consult the ATTRA publication Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Sericea Lespedeza. It is available on the ATTRA website at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=217. This publication lists some other species that produce tannins, such as birdsfoot trefoil, and lists the amounts of tannins.

In all probability, the Barber Pole Worm will be your most notable parasite. FAMACHA scoring your goats is a handy way for you to assess the degree of Barber Pole infestation. Consult with your extension agent or veterinarian for a FAMACHA trainer in your area.

One of the best means of controlling parasites in your goats is to apply the correct grazing strategy. This includes a 35-day pasture rest, less than four-day paddock grazing periods, and leaving 6 to 8 inches of residual behind. For more details, consult the ATTRA publication Tools for Managing Internal Parasites in Small Ruminants: Pasture Management, available at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=415. There is also an ATTRA video describing this and many other aspects of intensive grazing, entitled Intensive Grazing, One Farm’s Set Up. Check it out at https://attra.ncat.org/video/.

Additional articles on grazing controls and FAMACHA can be found at the American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control website at http://www.acsrpc.org/Ttopics.html.

It is advantageous to develop diverse species of plants in your pasture sward. Other grass and legume species that you could consider in your pasture are perennial ryegrass, meadowbrome grass, orchard grass, and Garrison creeping meadow foxtail. The rye grass and meadow foxtail will establish fairly easily by tromping them in during the early spring. I would recommend a stocking density of 18 of your goats per 1/8 or less of an acre when you tromp in the seed, even if you have to move them two to three times a day. Make sure that there are hoof prints everywhere.

Legumes that you might consider are birdsfoot trefoil, red clover, white clover (Alice), and alfalfa. You might experiment with some chicory. If you could get it established, your goats would like it.

Lastly, On Pasture provides the reader with lively information on grazing. You can find it at http://onpasture.com/. An additional site that is always informative is the Maryland Small Ruminant Page at http://www.sheepandgoat.com/.

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Permalink My dairy farm’s electric bill was $700 last month. Should I consider a solar energy system to reduce electric costs?

Answer: I would need to know more about your farm to give an educated opinion but, in general, if the $700 dollar electric bill was for one month, then your farm would likely be a good candidate for an energy audit. An audit would determine where most of the energy on your farm is being used and offer suggestions to reduce the usage.

The National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) has a program called EQIP On-Farm Energy Initiative, which helps farmers with an energy audit and with energy retrofits like lighting changes and motor upgrades, based on the results of the audit. You can learn more at www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/programs/financial/eqip/?cid=stelprdb1046252. You might also contact your local NRCS office to get additional information.

I would also suggest that you contact your electric utility. They sometimes have different rates for different customers and also may offer help with reducing your energy usage.

Once you have made some inroads on reducing your energy needs, then you can look at alternative energy sources like solar to help with at least part of the rest of the job. USDA’s Rural Energy for America Program (REAP) offers cost share and grants for alternative energy system installations. You can learn more about this program and how to apply for it at www.rd.usda.gov/programs-services/rural-energy-america-program-renewable-energy-systems-energy-efficiency.

For more information, consult the following ATTRA publications:

Dairy Farm Energy Efficiency
https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=198
This publication provides an overview of how dairy farms can implement efficiency improvements and energy-saving technologies that can reduce energy consumption and energy-related costs.

Renewable Energy Opportunities on the Farm
https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=306
This publication introduces three renewable energy resources that can be attractive and economically feasible for the farm: solar, wind, and renewable fuels. This is not a technical guide for designing or installing renewable energy systems but, instead, an overview that provides information on wind, solar, and renewable fuel technologies, cost and savings, site planning, and financial incentives.

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Permalink Can you identify resources to help first-time farmers with financing in Maine?

Answer: First, I recommend that you consult the ATTRA publication Financing Your Farm: Guidance for Beginning Farmers. This publication talks about some of the options that are available for accessing moneys to start a farm business. It covers traditional bank loans, farm credit, family loans, and USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) loans for beginning farmers. The FSA loan option is available to farmers who have been farming less than 10 years and who have not been able to secure a bank loan. This publication is a good starting point for some ideas of how to finance your farm. Farm Credit’s FarmStart Program focuses on supplying financing for farm businesses that look like they have good potential to succeed. https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=381

You may also find useful the ATTRA publication Finding Land to Farm: Six Ways to Secure Farm Land. While you may want to buy land outright, it is worth thinking about some of the ideas in this publication. If you can start farming with minimal debt, you will increase your chances of success. Leasing a farm initially might be an option for you, and there are different types of leasing agreements covered in this publication, including long-term leasing and leasing with the option to buy. https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=174

Maine FarmLink helps connect land owners with people looking for land to farm. Take a look at the website at www.mainefarmlink.org/ to see if there are any listings of land owners in your area looking for farmers to work their land.

For any of these options, it helps to have a well-defined business plan for your farm. You can access ATTRA farm business planning tutorials on the ATTRA website at https://attra.ncat.org/tutorials/. You can run through these tutorials at your own pace as time permits, and they are a great foundation for starting to write a plan for your farm. Money lenders are going to want to see a business plan in order to consider a loan for a farm start up.

Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association (MOFGA) is an organic certifying agency in Maine. Visit the MOFGA website at www.mofga.org/Home/tabid/74/Default.aspx to see the educational services they offer to farmers in your state. They offer a beginning farmer course that focuses on business planning and financial side of farming, which is as important as the production side. They also offer a small loan program for organic farmers.

You can find additional resources that could help in your endeavor by visiting the Marketing, Business & Risk Management and Beginning Farmer sections of the ATTRA website.

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Permalink When moving trees from our nursery to their final locations, is it best to dig them up bare root or with a significant root ball?

Answer: Transplanting this late in the season, when trees are beginning to break dormancy, it would be best if you could take as much soil with the roots as possible (not bare root). The reason is that most of the work of water uptake is actually done by little root hairs. Transplanting inevitably destroys many of the little root hairs. When the tree comes out of dormancy, the leaves transpire moisture, and if the root hairs have been damaged in transplanting and not had time to grow back, the moisture transpired from the leaves will be taken from storage roots and other plant tissues (this is why fall planting of bare-root stock is so good--the roots have had time to re-establish). This situation is what's commonly called "transplant shock." So, don't shake the soil off of the roots--try to disturb the roots as little as possible.

To learn more, consult the ATTRA publication Sustainable Small-Scale Nursery Production. It focuses on the sustainable production of woody and herbaceous nursery plants, both in containers and in the field. It is not a primer for inexperienced growers, but a complementary source of information that concentrates on sustainable production techniques. Topics covered include integrated pest management, weed control and alternative fertilizers. The publication also introduces business management practices. It is available at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=60.

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Permalink How do I go about setting vegetable prices for restaurant and wholesale markets?

Answer: Pricing is one of the most challenging aspects of farming. Checking the regional market prices is a good place to start. Rodale Institute has a good online tool that gives conventional and certified organic prices on many crops based on the terminal markets across the country. Tomatoes are listed at $21.00 for a 20-pound box of certified organic, while conventional is listed at $14. This is a wholesale price for tomatoes. Tomatoes sold in canning quantities would generally be discounted a bit, but they can be "seconds" that would not do well at a retail market. You can find this pricing tool at http://rodaleinstitute.org/farm/organic-price-report-tool/.

Generally, restaurants sales prices are not quite wholesale, and not quite retail. Many restaurants want great product at close to wholesale prices, but farm to table establishments will be willing to pay higher than wholesale prices. However, because of the higher quantities restaurants might commit to ordering, they deserve to pay less than what you would want to get in other direct sales outlets like farmers markets.

Ideally, you should know what your costs are to produce a unit of any given crop on your farm. This is determined by looking at all the inputs to produce a certain crop, including variable costs like seed, soil amendments, labor for planting and weeding, and harvest time, as well as fixed cost like tools and equipment, irrigation, cost of the land, etc. When you determine what it cost you to produce a unit of tomatoes, then you can add a percentage to that cost of production (20 to 30% isn't unreasonable) to come up with a price per unit. This way, you aren't pricing below cost of production and losing money.

For more information, check out the ATTRA publication Understanding Organic Pricing and Costs of Production. This publication provides resources to compare organic and conventional agricultural prices, discusses organic production costs, and offers tips on how to set organic crop prices. There are also several case studies included that summarize insights gained from successful organic farmers and ranchers. It’s available at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=419.

In addition, the ATTRA tipsheet Tips for Selling to Restaurants is a brief but informative publication that highlights the advantages, considerations, and key questions you should ask yourself when considering selling to a restaurant. You can access it at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=388.

You might also be interested in the ATTRA online tutorial Scaling Up for Regional Markets. This tutorial provides lessons and information for farmers who have success in smaller and more direct marketing channels and who are interested in expanding their operations to meet a growing demand for local food. It’s available at https://attra.ncat.org/tutorials/scalingup/.

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Permalink Can I substitute wet brewers grains for part of the corn-oats-barley rotation in finishing steers?

Answer: I foresee no problems with substituting wet brewers grains for one-third of the corn-oats-barley (COB) grain ration you are feeding your finishing steers. The University of Florida published an article titled “Wet Brewers’ Grains for Beef Cattle,” which you should find helpful as it provides a description of how to feed brewers grain and also its nutrient composition. You can access it at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/an241.

You mentioned that you are presently feeding your 800-pound steers 20 pounds of hay and seven to eight pounds of COB. As they finish, you are feeding an 1,100-pound steer 10 pounds of COB and approximately 23 pounds of hay. This is well within the limits of a hay-grain finishing ration and it should not cause acidosis.

By substituting brewers grains for one-third of the COB ration, you would be replacing about 2.6 pounds of the COB dry matter with brewers grains. Since the brewers grains are approximately 25% dry matter, you would feed 8 pounds X1/3 X 90%/25%= 9.4 pounds of actual Brewers for an 800-pound animal. For simplicity, you could round that up to 10 pounds. This reflects the fact that brewers grains are approximately 25% dry matter as opposed to 90% dry matter for COB. However, brewers grains can vary in moisture content. It is a good idea to have your brewers grains tested by a lab to get the full nutrient analysis. Dry-matter percentage would be one of the test results. This would give you a more accurate adjustment in which to feed the brewers grains. For example, if the dry-matter percentage of brewers grains came back at 30%, you would feed three pounds of it to every one pound of COB (90%/30%=3) substituted. If this were the case, you would only feed 7.8 pounds of brewers grains to the 800-pound steer. As you can see, the amount of moisture in the brewers grains does make a difference in how much you feed.

I think that at this rate of substitution, you would not have problems with barley bloat. However, it would be a good idea to make the transition over a week or 10 days. Just add a little more brewers grains to the grain mix every feeding, subtracting out the equivalent amount of COB as you go.

To learn more about topics related to livestock production, check out ATTRA's Livestock and Pasture section at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/livestock/.

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Permalink How can I get rid of Pleasing fungus beetles Triplax thoracica with natural predators or organic pesticides?

Answer: Common Triplax spp. feed on oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus spp.), which grow on dead logs. Chemical controls are not recommended, since mushrooms and their mycelia are very absorbent. These insects are not considered a major commercial pest, so very little research has been done on controlling their populations.

Unfortunately, if you're growing a colony of mushrooms, I think that sanitation is really your only option, unless you want to experiment with use of beneficial nematodes. I don't know what kind of situation your mushroom rearing facility is, but in a situation such as this, I think you need to make sure that any access to the outside is very well screened to prevent future infestations.

For your present crop of mushrooms, the facility needs to be cleaned out/sterilized to make sure that no larvae or pupae survive. Then you can start over with a new batch of logs or whatever substrate you're using, and clean inoculant.

In case you want to experiment with the use of beneficial (insect-eating) nematodes, I've listed some names of some formulations below, which include an insect-eating fungus, which you might wish to experiment with as well.

Trade Name: Lawn Patrol
Active Ingredient: Heterorhabditis bacteriophora
Supplier Info:
Hydro-Gardens, Inc.
P.O. Box 25845
Colorado Springs, CO 80936-5845
Email: hgi@hydro-gardens.com
Phone: (719) 496-2266
OMRI Listed: No

Trade Name: Naturalis-L
Active Ingredient: Beauveria bassiana
Supplier Info:
Troy Biosciences, Inc.
113 South 47th Street
Phoenix, AZ 85043
Email: info@troybiosciences.com
OMRI Listed: Yes

Trade Name: Nemasys L
Active Ingredient: Steinernema kraussei
Supplier Info:
Becker Microbial Products, Inc.
11146 NW 69th Place
Parkland, FL 33076
Phone: (954) 345-9321
OMRI Listed: No

Trade Name: Nematac S
Active Ingredient: Steinernema scapterisci
Supplier Info:
Becker Underwood, Inc.
801 Dayton Avenue
Ames, IA 50010
Email: request@beckerunderwood.com
Phone: (515) 232-5907
OMRI Listed: No

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Permalink How can I control Japanese beetle organically?

Answer: First, I encourage you to visit ATTRA's Biorational Pest Management Database. Here's the link to the entry for Japanese beetle: https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/biorationals/search_results.php?pestType=&pestName=Japanese+Beetle&actingredients=&tradeName=&Submit+Search=Submit+Search. As you can see, there are 20 products registered for control of Japanese beetle.

As you probably already know, several of those products target the larval or grub stage in the soil, and there is a huge problem with that—the adults are quite mobile and regardless of how many grubs you kill in your soil, there can be adults flying in from as far away as five miles.

The traps are similar in that they might trap your local adult population, but new adults could still fly in. However, my experience has been that if you are diligent about cleaning out the traps every day or two, or whenever they get filled, you'll make a lot of progress in reducing beetle populations. The traps fail when they aren’t cleaned out regularly.

There also are some homemade traps that work. I know that they work because they are my main method of control for both green June beetles and Japanese beetles. Here's a simple recipe found online:

Japanese Beetle Trap and Bait
The following bait and trap method is to be used during the height of the Japanese beetle season.

Ingredients:
1 cup water
1/4 cup sugar
1 mashed banana
1 package yeast

Dissolve sugar and yeast in the water. Mix the well-mashed banana into the sugar water. Put all ingredients in a gallon milk jug. Place the jug (with the top off) in an area where Japanese Beetles gather. The fermentation and odor of the bait attracts the beetles, which get in but not out.

But my recipe is even simpler: put a few pieces of whatever overripe fruit you have in a five-gallon bucket, fill half-way with water, and place near the crop you're trying to protect. You can throw in a little wine, too. I scoop out the beetles with a slotted kitty litter shovel and stomp on them or throw them to the ducks and chickens. The chickens don't like the green June beetles, but the ducks do.

Finally, you will probably get the best results using a "push-pull" strategy. PUSH the beetles away from your crop with a pesticide or with the pest-repellent kaolin clay (Surround™) (again, see ATTRA's Biorational Pest Control Database for organic pesticides) and PULL them into your baited traps.

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Permalink How can I propagate blackberries and figs?

Answer: Blackberries are exceedingly easy to propagate from root cuttings. First, you have to get to the roots, so you can either come out from your mother plants 12 to 18 inches or so with a shovel or tractor-driven plow and turn up some roots. Or you can dig up whole plants, which is what I prefer to do. I usually do this in late winter or early spring.

Then, select some of the larger roots (pencil diameter or larger) and cut them into pieces roughly two-inches long. I store these in plastic bags in a walk-in cooler or refrigerator until I’m ready to line them out three to four inches apart in trenches about two inches deep and then cover them with soil. About the only thing that can go wrong is allowing the root pieces to dry out, so make sure the cuttings are just a tiny bit moist if you’re storing them in plastic bags for very long, and be careful to not let the planted root pieces dry out in the field.

Figs are also quite easy to propagate. First, take pencil-diameter cuttings about three to six inches long. Make sure that the fig cuttings contain some of the wood from the previous year and are not all new wood for the best results.

Line the bottoms of trays or individual planters with newspaper. Add enough potting soil to the planters to allow the cuttings to stand upright (two to three inches). Place cuttings a few inches apart, making sure that the part of the cutting that was closest to the ground when you took the cutting goes down, and water the soil until moist.

Place the trays or planters in a bright, warm location that does not receive direct sunlight. The cuttings will root most effectively in temperatures above 70 degrees F. Water the cuttings only when the soil is completely dry.

When three to five leaves have emerged on each sprout, transplant the rooted fig cuttings directly into the ground or into larger pots. Fertilize to encourage growth.

You can learn more about blackberry production in the ATTRA publication Organic Culture of Bramble Fruits, available at
https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=15.

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Permalink What can you tell me about growing tart cherries in the South?

Answer: I'd say your chances for growing tart cherries successfully are good to very good. The tart cherry, Prunus cerasus, is much better adapted to the upper South than is the sweet cherry, P. avium. Note that sweets and tarts are separate and distinct species. The biggest banes of sweet cherries--brown rot and bacterial canker--are only minor problems on tart cherries.

Leaf spot and powdery mildew on the leaves will probably be your biggest problems. They usually don't appear until after harvest. They don't hurt the fruit but can weaken the tree if they get so bad that they defoliate, which, in the South, is not uncommon. Sulfur works on both and baking soda products, like Kaligreen™, are good for powdery mildew.

Regarding rootstocks, there are some newer ones that might do well for you, but the standard seedling rootstock Mahaleb will probably do fine in your sandy loam soils. If you have any doubt about the drainage at the site you choose, you might want to berm up the soil a little (just 12 to 18 inches higher than the surrounding ground should suffice). For more information on the newer rootstocks, consult the ATTRA publication Cherries: Organic Production at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=460. There is a chart summarizing their characteristics on page 5.

All soft fruits are perishable, and I'd say cherries are no better or worse as long as the stems remain on the fruits. The problem is that when picking, the stem often pulls off right where it joins with the fruit and leaves an open, juicy scar. So, first, try to pick so that the stems remain on the fruit (some will get away from you). Secondly, refrigerate as soon as possible after picking. And, lastly, have a marketing plan in place that will allow you to get them to your buyers as soon after harvest as possible.

I've fooled around with several tart cherry varieties over the years, and I have yet to find anything better than the old Montmorency. It's self-pollinating, so you don't have to get other varieties, but you'll probably want to just for fun!

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Permalink How can I find a farming internship in the Northeast?

Answer: A good place to start is ATTRA's internship database, one of the most utilized farm internship sites in the country. You can narrow a search by location or by enterprise. It is available at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/internships/.

It is also a good idea to check with each state's sustainable/organic farming organization. These organizations usually have listings online or in their classified newsletter sections.

Starting in Pennsylvania, the Pennsylvania Association for Sustainable Agriculture (PASA) hosts a jobs/internship listing at www.pasafarming.org/classifieds/sections/jobs-interships.

Moving North, each individual state in New England (except Maine) has its own chapter for NOFA (Northeast Organic Farming Association). The main NOFA website is www.nofa.org and you can access each state's website from there. In addition, NOFA publishes a fantastic journal, The Natural Farmer, and you may want to get the latest issue to search through its classified ads for internships.

Maine has its own state organization, Maine Organic Farming & Gardening Association (MOFGA), which is another great resource. To learn more, visit www.mofga.org/.

Here are a few additional possibilities:

Northeast Sustainable Agriculture Working Group
http://nesawg.org/resources/job-listings

Beginning Farmers
www.beginningfarmers.org/internship-and-employment-opportunities/

Rodale Institute
http://rodaleinstitute.org/agriculture-supported-communities-asc-internships-available/

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Permalink What can you tell me about saving seed and associated disease issues?

Answer: Occasionally seed-borne diseases can be spread when saving seed. It is not very often that this occurs, however, and I wouldn’t discourage you from seed saving because of this. Two diseases that are more commonly spread via seed are black rot and Tomato Mosaic virus. It is important when saving seed to harvest seed from your healthiest plants. If there is any sign of disease, do not harvest seed from it.

The exception in seed saving that you should be mindful of is "seed" or plants that are propagated vegetatively, such as potatoes and garlic. A host of diseases (and nematodes) are unfortunately carried in the tubers and can be transmitted once they are planted in the soil. Be sure to carefully inspect tubers and garlic bulbs to ensure that they do not have any blemishes or signs of disease in their production cycle and on the tubers themselves.

I would also recommend an invaluable resource for seed saving titled Seed to Seed, by Suzanne Ashworth, if you do not have it already. It lists most types of garden seeds with specific directions for each one. Some seed saving can be complicated if the plants are cross pollinated and require isolation and hand pollination to save seed. This book outlines the best methods in doing this. It is available at www.seedsavers.org/onlinestore/SSE-Books/Seed-To-Seed.html. It is also available at a variety of retail outlets, so you might check your local bookstore or library.

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Permalink Can you help me understand the different types of hydroponic systems?

Answer: In its most basic definition, hydroponic production is the production of plants in a nutrient solution rather than soil. Many variations on this theme exist, but most production occurs in greenhouses. The investment required for a hydroponic greenhouse is typically higher than in-ground greenhouse production, but you have more flexibility with the plants and can grow in higher density, as well as charge a premium, so the returns can be higher.

There are two basic hydroponic systems, non-recycled nutrient, where the nutrient solution is used once, and recycled nutrient systems. There are many variations within those two, but I will explain how they both work below.

Non-recycled Nutrient Solution
Perhaps the most simplified system for producing greenhouse vegetables is where the floor of the greenhouse is used as the media for growing plants. This system can be on the ground or in a bed or trough, but usually consists of sand, perlite, pine bark, or gravel approximately 10 to 12 inches deep, separated from the underlying soil by a plastic barrier. To provide adequate drainage, a drain line should be installed under each pair of rows. Drain lines should be approximately 1 ¼ inches deep for sand and 3 inches deep for bark, with a fall of 2 inches per 100 feet of row.

Irrigation water and nutrients are supplied by a drip system with enough emitters per plant to provide sufficient quantities of solution. Leachates should be monitored frequently for total dissolved solids. When levels exceed 3500 ppm, media should be leached with water until leachates are less than 1,000 ppm.

Many greenhouse vegetables can also be grown in containers using the same type of media discussed for bed and trough culture. Containers should be of sufficient size to provide good aeration and drainage. Three- to five-gallon containers appear to be best. Irrigation water and nutrient solutions are supplied by a drip-irrigation system.

Bag culture is similar to the use of containers with the only exception being that plants are grown in the bag that contains the growing media. In this growing system, plants are handled just as if they were in a container.

Recycled Nutrient Solution
This can be used with gravel as medium or in troughs and the nutrient solution is pumped through the plants no less than every 30 minutes. The tank that contains the bulk nutrient solution should be of a capacity to supply three gallons per plant. Beds are irrigated to about 1" below the surface of the gravel and the tank refilled with the premixed nutrient solution daily or at least once every third day. The nutrient solution should be monitored frequently for total solids and replaced when levels approach 3,500 ppm.

The Nutrient Film Technique was invented in Britain but is commonly used for smaller crops such as herbs and lettuce. The plants are placed in shallow plastic troughs and the nutrient solution is continually pumped over the roots without any medium to hold the plants. The troughs are on a slope, so the nutrient solution is constantly recirculating.

To learn more about hydroponics, consult the following resources:

Cornell University Controlled Environment Agriculture program
There are many manuals and resources for Controlled Environment Agriculture (hydroponics) on the program web page.
www.cornellcea.com/resourcesPublications/CornellPublications/index.html

Resh, Howard. 2013. Hydroponic Food Production: A Definitive Guidebook for the Advanced Home Gardener and the Commercial Hydroponic Grower. Seventh Edition.
This is a comprehensive guide to soilless culture with extensively new and updated contents from the previous edition published in 2001.

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Permalink Can I treat a cow with frostbitten teats without drying her up?

Answer: Drying your cow up is probably the easiest and most reliable treatment. The action of the milking machine or hand milking will irritate the scab and delay its healing. However, if you do not want to dry her up, and I don't blame you, this is what I would do:

At the end of each milking, dip the teat with a non-iodine based teat dip. You need to use a teat dip that is nonirritating. Consult your dairy dealer. Take some gauze that is sized to cover the scabbed area on the teat. Put some honey on the gauze. It does not have to be a lot, just enough to cover the scabbed area. Next, get some ¾-inch cloth medical tape; cut it into two four- to five-inch pieces. Form the two pieces of tape into a "cross" and stick the gauze with honey onto the tape. Arrange this assembly on the teat so that the gauze and tape bandage covers the entire bottom of the teat and the scabbed area. Finish by cutting a six-inch piece of tape and wrapping it around the top of the teat so it secures the cross bandage to the teat. Honey is a very good antibacterial agent and also very healing. I used Vitamin E until I discovered honey.

The scabbed frostbite tissue must heal from the inside out. It will take about 60 days. So that is about 120 bandages per teat that you will have to make. Since your cow is not bred yet, I would be inclined to try this treatment. It costs a lot of money to feed a dry cow. In addition, dairy cows breed back easier if they are lactating.

Be aware that frostbit, scabbed teats make the cow very susceptible to Staphylococcus mastitis, which is a very bad condition. It remains in the cow's udder and often is incurable. That is the risk you take.

Of course, in hindsight, it is best to try and prevent frostbit teats. Check with your local dairy dealer. He will have a dip or powder that you can dip the teats in whenever it gets below 20 degrees F. They work very well. If for some reason you cannot find some frost dip, you can make some out of Vaseline and scarlet oil (get this from your vet). Put about 10 cc of scarlet oil in the small tub of Vaseline. Rub it into the Vaseline with your forefinger, incorporating only enough Vaseline to make a rose-colored mix. Apply this mix liberally to the teats after each milking. This scarlet oil/Vaseline mix is good to about 0 degrees F, including wind chill. It will soften the skin and provide a protective layer. The frost dips protect the teats to minus 30 degrees F or so.

You must be patient because healing your cow will be a long process. Strive to be very clean when you are working with the affected teats. Staphylococcus bacteria are all over the scab. When you wash with soap her before milking, get each teat very clean.

To learn more about topics related to livestock production, visit ATTRA's Livestock and Pasture section at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/livestock/.

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Permalink What can you tell me about the use of Bradford pear as a rootstock?

Answer: Bradford pear belongs to the "wild" species Pyrus calleryana. Bradford is simply a selection from that species, chosen for ornamental purposes. Bradford is actually budded or grafted onto seedlings of P. calleryana, which may or may not (due to the genetic variability of seedlings) closely resemble Bradford.

Callery, as the nurserymen call it, is a somewhat common rootstock for pears, especially for the southern U.S. where it is well adapted to the heat and challenging soil conditions. Bradford has fallen out of favor with horticulturists in large part because of the weed-like spread of seedlings from seeds distributed by birds. But the same thing that makes those seedlings "weed trees" makes it an excellent rootstock. You almost can’t kill it!

I don't use Bradford, per se, as my pear rootstock, but I do use callery seedlings, which is almost the same. I buy the rootstocks from specialty nurseries in Oregon, but one could simply take some of the little pear fruits from the Bradford in the autumn and start plants from those. Also, if a person had a bunch of callery sprouts already on a piece of land, you could bud or graft them in place. Grafting to large Bradfords would also be possible but considerably more trouble.

To learn more about pear production, consult the ATTRA publication Pears: Organic Production. This introduction to commercial organic pear production covers pear diseases, disease-resistant cultivars, rootstocks, insect and mite pests, and their treatment, Asian pears, and marketing. Two profiles of organic pear growers are included. Electronic and print resources are provided for further research. It is available at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=7.

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Permalink What should I look for when buying a used manure spreader?

Answer: When you are purchasing a used manure spreader, look for these things:

1. General appearance. Is it beat up from misuse? Look at the sides. Are they rusted? Is the bottom made of wood with a poly cover? Avoid metal beds, even the Cor–Ten steel ones.
2. Is the frame twisted?
3. Rock the wheels. Is the bearing play correct? Not too loose?
4. Are the apron flats bent? Are they perpendicular to the box sides?
5. What type of apron chain links does the machine have? In my experience, the strongest are the square ones. Avoid the links that look like roller chain. How good of shape are the links? It is best to check and see if you can get replacement links. Confirm this by buying two to four. They are not very expensive and you may need them in the future. The same goes for the apron flats.
6. Check the lube level in the gearbox. Is it at the correct level? This can speak volumes for the care the spreader has been given.
7. Is the apron chain adjusted correctly? Are the two sides of the chain in equal tension? If they are not, it is possible for the looser chain links to skip a link as they goes over the drive cog, misaligning the accompanying apron flat and bending it as it goes over the spreader end.
8. Are the beaters all present? If one is missing, it will cause the beater cylinder to be out of balance, causing undue bearing stress.
9. Check the bearings and universal joints. Have they been greased regularly? A good way to check this is to note excess grease that has spun out. If there is no grease at all around the bearing housing, I would be wary.
10. Check PTO. Nearly all small spreaders are 540 RPM. Make sure it matches your tractor PTO RPM.
11. Slide the PTO shaft in and out. Make sure it slides easily. If the shaft has been dropped and a dimple is in the guard tube, the shaft will not slide easily. This is a real pain. Also check that the universal crosses have been greased. Does the PTO latching mechanism on the shaft work securely?
12. If there are any hydraulics, such as for an end gate, check the hoses. Are the hydraulic fittings compatible with your tractor’s? They do make different tips, so it is best to check. These tips are easily changed out.
13. If the gear box needs work, most bearings and gears should be stock. A machine shop can rebuild the gearbox for you.

To learn more about topics related to compost and manure, check out the resources on ATTRA’s Soils & Compost page at https://attra.ncat.org/soils.html.

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Permalink Can I dig up fruit trees and pot them in very early spring to sell in the fall?

Answer: You should be able to transplant the trees into pots anytime they're dormant and the ground isn't frozen. However, be aware that if temperatures plummet after they're in pots, the roots will be more subject to cold damage than if they had remained in the ground. In such a case, you might want to cluster the potted trees together and pile some sort of bulky mulch (straw or leaves should work) around and maybe even over the pots. If it were me, I'd wait a while longer to avoid having to worry about freezing, perhaps early March.

To learn more, check out the ATTRA publication Tree Fruits: Organic Production Overview. This publication provides an overview of issues relevant to commercial organic production of temperate-zone tree fruits and, to a lesser extent, tree nuts. It includes discussions of marketing and economics, orchard design, and cultural considerations, including crop varieties, site selection, site preparation, soil fertility, weed control, and pest management (insects, diseases, and vertebrates). It raises questions for the grower to consider in making decisions about orchard and enterprise design. It is available at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=2.

You might also be interested in the many resources on our Horticultural Crops webpage at https://attra.ncat.org/horticultural.html.

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Permalink How do I know when my lambs are correctly finished?

Answer: Harvesting your animals at exactly the right time is very important. Lambs that are over- or under-finished will produce meat that is less desirable to consumers. Mastering the ability to determine when your lambs are correctly finished at 0.20 to 0.25 inch of back fat can result in a superior product in the marketplace, one that surpasses your competitors and creates demand among consumers.

Even if you're just raising lambs for your own consumption, using this technique will create a premium meat and thus a superior dining experience. As an added bonus, you can also reduce unnecessary finishing costs.

Feeling for Twenty Hundreds
As a lamb matures, it builds muscle first and puts on fat later. The spinal and lumbar regions are two places where it is easy to gauge the amount of fat on the animal. These areas are also where the highest-quality cuts – the rack and the loin chops – are located.

During the final two months of finishing, fat is deposited along the sides and top of the spine (racks), filling in the sharp recesses. Simultaneously, fat is being deposited along the sides of the lumbar processes (loin chops) – the bony protuberances – smoothing out the ridges.

As luck would have it, we all have a convenient, built-in "gauge" for determining how much back fat is present on the animal—our hands. Make a tight fist with your right hand and then run your fingers over the set of knuckles that your fingers are attached to. It feels like the Rocky Mountains. That is what the backbone, or spine, of an unfinished lamb feels like. Now, extend the fingers of your right hand and feel across those same knuckles. Quite a difference. You have just simulated the top of a finished lamb. In a properly finished lamb, the spinal processes are covered with a layer of fat that is about 0.20 inch thick. That is a skinny quarter inch. As your finished lamb stands in the race (the chute that serves to restrain them) alongside of you, run your fingers up and down the backbone, visualizing in your mind that skinny quarter inch of fat. Does the lamb show it?

Does the Fat Slip?
When the lamb has 0.20 inch of back fat, you will also be able to feel the fat slide across the backbone in such a way that it seems to "slip" as you move your fingers over the backbone. This is characteristic of 0.20 inch of back fat. Fat covers of less than 0.20 inch will not slip, while covers of 0.30 inch or more will tend to "roll" over the spinal processes instead of slipping. Additionally, a 0.30 inch or greater thickness of back fat seems to move as one whole layer, producing a "jiggling" effect as your hand moves it rapidly.

Guard against over-finished lambs—process them before they become too fat. If you can consistently produce lamb that is properly finished, you will achieve one of your primary goals: a differentiated product. As such, your lamb will rise above others in the marketplace for its quality.

Want to see this technique in action? Check out the ATTRA video Putting a Hand on Them—How to Tell When Your Lamb is Finished, available at www.youtube.com/watch?v=pbBrR3UGvsY. Also see our fact sheet by the same name at https://attra.ncat.org/attra-pub/summaries/summary.php?pub=459.

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Permalink How can I thresh small grains by hand?

Answer: Threshing—the act of physically breaking the grain kernel out of the plants seed head—is done by some form of beating. With small amounts of grain, it can be done by beating the grain heads against the inside of a clean container such as a bucket. As the grain kernels break free, they also bring with them smaller structures of the head, such as the awns, glumes, and small pieces of the stems, which are all described as chaff. With larger amounts of grain, you can use a clean concrete surface or a blanket or tarp and use a flail.

Once the grain has been separated from the head and you have collected the grain kernels, these need to be separated from the chaff. This is done by passing air over a downward-falling grain stream through a stream of wind. That wind can be outdoors or easily created using a household electrical fan.

There is an excellent YouTube video entitled Grain Thresher Design and Winnowing-How To, which illustrates several home-designed threshing devices using an electrical drill with some pieces of chain and a five-gallon bucket for threshing and using a household fan for winnowing. It is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oDr8VF2QIPM.

To learn more about topics related to small grains, visit the Field Crops section of ATTRA’s website at https://attra.ncat.org/field.html.

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